Socioeconomic status and mortality among dialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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The reported association between individual indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality in dialysis patients was inconsistent in previous studies. We performed a meta-analysis to identify the association between SES and mortality of dialysis population.
The meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with MOOSE guidelines. Cohorts evaluating the association between SES indicators (income, education and occupation) and mortality in dialysis patients were included. Random-effects models were used to pool the adjusted relative risk (RR) from individual studies. Heterogeneity was assessed by Cochrane’s Q and the I2 statistic. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify sources of heterogeneity and to evaluate the robustness of findings.
Fourteen studies were finally included. In hemodialysis patients, increased mortality was associated with lower level of income (RR = 1.08, 95%CI [1.01–1.16], P = 0.035; I2 = 87.9%, P < 0.001) and occupation (RR = 1.63, 95%CI [1.11–2.38], P = 0.013; I2 = 0.0%, P = 0.601). However, no significant association was identified for education (RR = 1.43, 95%CI [0.92–2.25]; P = 0.112; I2 = 68.3%,P = 0.001). In patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, lower level of income (RR = 1.80, 95%CI [1.12–2.88],P = 0.015; I2 = 75.9%, P = 0.042), education (RR = 1.27, 95%CI [1.13–1.43], P < 0.001; I2 = 0.0%, P = 0.684), and occupation (RR = 3.42, 95% CI [1.35–8.70], P = 0.010) were risk factors for increased mortality. Subgroup analysis showed the association between SES indicators and mortality in hemodialysis differed according to geographic locations and study designs.
Lower SES (measured by income, education, and occupation) tends to be associated with higher mortality in patients receiving maintenance dialysis. But the magnitude of the associations varied for different individual indicators of SES.
KeywordsSocioeconomic status End-stage renal disease Dialysis Mortality Meta-analysis
This work was supported by the International Cooperation Project (2016HH0069) funded by Science and Technology Department of Sichuan Province, China.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
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