Improved voiding function by deep brain stimulation in traumatic brain-injured animals with bladder dysfunctions
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global scenario with high mortality and disability, which does not have an effectual and approved therapy till now. Bladder dysfunction is a major symptom after TBI, and this study deals with the alleviation of bladder function in TBI rats, with the aid of deep brain stimulations (DBS).
TBI was induced by weight drop model (WDM) and standardized with the experimental subjects with variable heights for weight dropping. The rats survived after TBI were considered for bladder dysfunction observations. DBS with variable stimulation parameters like cystometric analysis and MRI studies were also performed.
After experimental studies, TBI 2-m-height crash was determined as suitable parameter due to minimal mortality rate and significant reduction in the voiding efficiency from 67 to 28%, whereas DBS significantly reversed the value of voiding efficiency to 65–84%. MRI studies revealed the severity of TBI impact and DBS localization.
The results showed profound therapeutic effect of PnO-DBS on voiding functions and bladder control on TBI rats.
KeywordsDeep brain stimulations PnO Traumatic brain injury Weight drop model Cystometric analysis
The experimental procedures used in the present study were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Taipei Medical University (TMU) and followed by the TMU IACUC guidelines to treat animals humanely and reduce animal suffering by use of appropriate anaesthesia and analgesics (IACUC Approval No. LAC-2013-0199).
This work was supported by the Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology under the Grant Number MOST106-2221-E-038-010-MY3 and MOST107-2811-E-038-001 to C.W. Peng.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
This work was approved and conducted under the ethical guidance of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Taipei Medical University (Approval No. LAC-2013-0199).
Research involving human and animal participants
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
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