International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 1017–1020 | Cite as

Incidence and risk factors for positive urine culture at the time of pediatric urologic surgery

  • Michael A. Maccini
  • David J. Chalmers
  • Vijaya M. Vemulakonda
  • Jeffrey B. CampbellEmail author
Urology - Original Paper



Urinary tract infections are relatively common in pediatric patients. Unrecognized bacteriuria at the time of urologic surgery puts patients at increased risk for perioperative complications. Many pediatric urologists obtain preoperative or intraoperative urine cultures prior to surgery, but data are lacking regarding rates and risk factors for positive intraoperative urine cultures. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing pediatric urologic surgery to examine factors associated with positive intraoperative urine cultures.

Materials and methods

Charts of patients of age 0–18 years from a single pediatric urologist with associated intraoperative urine culture results between 2008 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, prior culture results, and information regarding possible risk factors of interest—history of constipation, hydronephrosis, neurogenic bladder, posterior urethral valves, ureterocele, UPJ obstruction, urolithiasis, vesicoureteral reflux, and circumcision status—were collected and analyzed.


Seven hundred and fifty procedure encounters with associated intraoperative urine culture results were reviewed. Overall positive urine culture rate was 13.5%. Factors associated with increased odds of positive intraoperative urine culture included neurogenic bladder (odds ratio 26.3, p < 0.001), prior positive culture (OR 5.4, p < 0.001), female sex (OR 2.1, p 0.007), constipation (OR 2.9, p < 0.001), and urolithiasis (OR 1.58, p = 0.04). Patients without any of these risk factors had no positive intraoperative cultures (p = 0.03).


Patients with neurogenic bladder, prior positive urine culture, constipation, female gender, and urolithiasis were at increased risk for positive intraoperative urine culture. This may aid in decision-making regarding obtaining preoperative or intraoperative urine cultures in pediatric urology patients.


Bacteriuria Pediatric urology Urinary tract infection 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were reviewed by the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board and were deemed to be in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Given the retrospective nature of the study and use of de-identified data, informed consent from individual patients was not deemed to be required during review by the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. Maccini
    • 1
  • David J. Chalmers
    • 2
  • Vijaya M. Vemulakonda
    • 3
  • Jeffrey B. Campbell
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of UrologyUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Maine Medical Partners - UrologySouth PortlandUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pediatric UrologyChildren’s Hospital ColoradoAuroraUSA

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