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Increased risk of kidney damage among Chinese adults with simple renal cyst

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Abstract

Background

The presence of simple renal cyst (SRC) has been related to hypertension, the early and long-term allograft function, and aortic disease, but the relationship with kidney damage was still controversial. Accordingly, we conducted a large sample cross-sectional study to explore the association of SRC with indicators of kidney damage among Chinese adults.

Methods

A total of 42,369 adults (aged 45.8 ± 13.67 years, 70.6% males) who visited the Health Checkup Clinic were consecutively enrolled. SRC was assessed by ultrasonography according to Bosniak category. Multiple regression models were applied to explore the relationships between SRC and indicators of kidney damage [proteinuria (dipstick urine protein ≥ 1+) and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (DeGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2].

Results

Among all participants in the study, the prevalence of SRC was 10.5%. As a categorical outcome, participants with more 1 cyst and with 1 cyst had higher percentage of proteinuria [53 (5.3%) and 93 (2.7%) vs. 596 (1.6%), p < 0.001] and DeGFR [57 (5.7%) and 85 (2.5%) vs. 278 (0.7%), p < 0.001] compared with participants with no cyst. SRC significantly correlated with proteinuria [OR 1.59 (95% CI 1.30–1.95)] and DeGFR [OR 1.97 (95% CI 1.56–2.47)] after adjusting for potential confounders. Furthermore, the results also demonstrated that maximum diameter (per 1 cm increase), bilateral location, and multiple cysts significantly correlated with DeGFR in the multiple logistic regression analysis.

Conclusions

The study revealed that SRC significantly correlated with kidney damage and special attention should be paid among Chinese adults with SRC.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge Dr. Jinwei Wang (Department of nephrology, Peking University First Hospital) for his generous sponsorship for statistical suggestions.

Funding

This study was funded by the Clinical Medicine Innovation Program of the Science and Technology Development Programs from the Ji’nan Science and Technology Bureau (201704086), and the Projects of Medical and Health Technology Development Program of Shandong Province (2017WS083). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Author information

Correspondence to Dongmei Xu.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and also under the approval of the Ethics Committee of Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University (No. 2016s001, February 16, 2016).

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Kong, X., Ma, X., Zhang, C. et al. Increased risk of kidney damage among Chinese adults with simple renal cyst. Int Urol Nephrol 50, 1687–1694 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255-018-1880-3

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Keywords

  • Simple renal cyst
  • Kidney disease
  • Proteinuria
  • Estimated glomerular filtration rate
  • Epidemiology