International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 49, Issue 11, pp 2019–2026 | Cite as

Alprostadil protects type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with metformin from contrast-induced nephropathy

  • Jing Wang
  • Xiaobo Ai
  • Li Li
  • Yanyan Gao
  • Nina Sun
  • Changgui LiEmail author
  • Weihong SunEmail author
Nephrology - Original Paper



Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients treated with metformin are predisposed to develop contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after received emergency contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examination. We evaluated the protective effects of alprostadil on CIN in T2DM patients treated with metformin after contrast media (CM) administration.


In this single-institution, single-blind, superiority trial, we randomly assigned 451 T2DM patients taking metformin and underwent emergency contrast-enhanced CT examination to either the alprostadil group (227 patients) receiving alprostadil or the control group (224 patients) without alprostadil. All subjects stopped taking metformin and drank 500 ml water within 12 h after CM exposure. In addition, patients in the alprostadil group were injected with alprostadil (10 μg/day, for 3 days) plus 20 ml normal saline (alprostadil hydration) and the control group patients were daily injected with 20 ml normal saline as control for 3 days following CM administration. Serum creatinine (Scr) was measured before and <72 h after contrast-enhanced CT examination. CIN was defined as an increase in Scr ≥ 44.2 µmol/l (0.5 mg/dL) or >25% over baseline within 3 days of contrast administration.


There was a lower incidence of CIN in patients underwent alprostadil hydration than drinking water monohydration after CM administration, who with either normal renal function or chronic kidney disease (baseline eGFR < 60 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2).


Alprostadil hydration was superior to drinking water monohydration regarding preventing CIN in T2DM patients treated with metformin after contrast-enhanced CT.


Contrast media Contrast-induced nephropathy Alprostadil Diabetes mellitus Metformin 



We acknowledge Dr. Xiaofang Wei for helpful discussions. We also thank Danni Zhu for her assistance in experimental procedures. This work is partially supported by the key project of Qingdao Health Bureaugrant10-4-2-5-jch. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Department of Endocrinology and MetabolismThe Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao UniversityQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Department of NephrologyQingdao Fifth People’s HospitalQingdaoChina
  3. 3.Department of Respiratory MedicineThe Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao UniversityQingdaoChina
  4. 4.Gout Laboratory, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Metabolic DiseasesQingdaoUniversityQingdaoChina
  5. 5.Biotherapy Center, The Affiliated Central Hospital of Qingdao UniversityQingdaoChina

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