Lung function and impaired kidney function in relation to metabolic syndrome
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This study aimed to assess the relationships between abnormal lung function and indicators of chronic kidney disease in relation to metabolic syndrome (MetS) by using data from the 2011–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Using the data of 8551 Korean adults (3798 men, 4753 women, ≥40 years), lung function categories [obstructive lung disease (OLD), restrictive lung disease (RLD), and non-obstructive/non-restrictive lung disease (reference group)] were defined for each gender. Albuminuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Gender-specific logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for age, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and medication use for chronic diseases.
Compared to the reference group, low eGFR was associated with higher odds for RLD in men and RLD or OLD in women when they did not have MetS. In those with MetS, low eGFR was associated with higher odds for OLD in men and RLD or OLD in women. Albuminuria was associated with higher odds for RLD in men who did not have MetS, while it was associated with higher odds for RLD or OLD in men and women who had MetS.
Abnormal lung function was associated with increased odds for chronic kidney disease indicators, when combined with MetS in both gender. Even in those without MetS, RLD in men was associated with increased odds for low eGFR or albuminuria, while RLD or OLD in women was associated with increased odds for low eGFR.
KeywordsLung function Metabolic syndrome Estimated glomerular filtration rate Albuminuria
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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