International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 803–810 | Cite as

New frontiers in prostate cancer imaging: clinical utility of prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography

  • Asim Afaq
  • Deepak BaturaEmail author
  • Jamshed Bomanji
Urology - Review


Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA PET) is a relatively new method of imaging prostate cancer that increases diagnostic accuracy in detecting and guiding management in various stages of the disease pathway. Gallium-68-labelled PSMA PET has increased the sensitivity of detection of disease recurrence at low PSA levels, thus allowing an optimal window for salvage treatment. Apart from its use in disease recurrence, PSMA PET has the potential for increasing sensitivity and specificity for primary tumour localisation and in detecting lymph node disease, leading to a more accurate initial staging of the condition. In advanced disease, the use of PSMA PET may be able to assess response to treatment and also guide treatment with radionuclide therapy. Newer ligands under development might provide avenues for theranostic or personalised therapy applications with early data showing high PSA response rates. The rate of translation of PSMA PET into clinical practice has been remarkable. The use of this modality is likely to increase with future efforts to modify the radiotracer including 18F labelling to improve availability.


PSMA PET Prostate cancer Imaging Theranostics Radiotracers 



Dr. Afaq is partly funded by the National Institute for Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre and a London North West Healthcare Charitable Fund Grant.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest in this study.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Nuclear MedicineUniversity College London Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyLondon North West Healthcare NHS TrustLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of UrologyLondon North West Healthcare NHS TrustLondonUK

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