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International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 597–605 | Cite as

Nitric oxide coating polypropylene mesh increases angiogenesis and reduces inflammatory response and apoptosis

  • Alessandro PrudenteEmail author
  • Wágner José Favaro
  • Leonardo Oliveira Reis
  • Cássio Luis Zanettini Riccetto
Urology – Original Paper

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the effect of implanted S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) coating polypropylene mesh in foreign-body response of rats.

Methods

Thirty female rats underwent to subcutaneous implant of five polypropylene (PP) fragments: uncoated PP (control); PP polyvinylalcohol (PVA) coated and PP PVA + GSNO (1, 10 and 70 mMol) coated. After euthanasia (4 and 30 days), eight slides were prepared from each animal: hematoxylin–eosin (inflammatory response); unstained (birefringence collagen evaluation); TUNEL technique (apoptosis); and five for immunohistochemical processing: CD-31 (angiogenesis), IL-1 and TNF-α (proinflammatory cytokynes), iNOS (NO synthesis) and MMP-2 (collagen metabolism). The inflammation area, birefringence index, apoptotic index, immunoreactivity and vessel density were objectively measured.

Results

Inflammatory reaction area at 4 days was 11.3, 15.2, 25.1, 17.1 and 19.3% of pure PP, PVA, GSNO 1, 10 and 70 mM, respectively, p = 0.0006 (PP × Others). At 30 days lower inflammatory area was observed in GSNO 10 and 70 mM compared to pure PP (5.3, 5.2 and 11.1%, respectively, p = 0.0001). Vessel density was higher for GSNO 1 mM (25.5%) compared to pure PP (19.6%) at 30 days only, p = 0.0081. Apoptotic index at 4 days was lower for GSNO 1 mM (49.3%) than pure PVA (60.6%), p = 0.0124. GSNO 10 and 70 mM reduced their apoptotic index at 30 days compared to 4 days (49.9 vs. 36.9 and 59.1 vs. 47.5%, respectively, p = 0.0397). Birefringence index, IL-1, TNF, MMP-2 and iNOS were not different.

Conclusions

Depending on concentrations, GSNO can increase angiogenesis, reduce inflammation and apoptosis compared to pure PP, without impact on cytokine, collagen organization/metabolism and endogenous NO synthesis.

Keywords

Host versus graft reaction Nitric oxide Pelvic organ prolapse Polypropylenes Surgical mesh 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by Sao Paulo Research Foundation (Grant: 2011/11522-2).

Author contribution

AP contributed to conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript, statistical analysis, obtaining funding and technical support. WJF contributed to conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision of the manuscript and technical and material support. LOR contributed to conception and design, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the manuscript and critical revision of the manuscript. CLZR contributed to conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript, statistical analysis, obtaining funding, technical support and supervision.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This study has received approval by the Ethics Committee for Animal Experiments (CEEA-IB-UNICAMP) of the University of Campinas (Protocol: 2400-1).

Supplementary material

11255_2017_1520_MOESM1_ESM.docx (98 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 98 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Medical SciencesUniversity of CampinasCampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Institute of BiologyUniversity of CampinasCampinasBrazil
  3. 3.Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas (PUC-Campinas)CampinasBrazil
  4. 4.Porto VelhoBrazil

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