Effect of flaxseed oil on serum systemic and vascular inflammation markers and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flaxseed oil consumption on serum systemic and vascular inflammation markers, and oxidative stress in hemodialysis (HD) patients.
In this randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, 34 HD patients were randomly assigned to either the flaxseed oil or the control group. The patients in the flaxseed oil group received 6 g/day flaxseed oil for 8 week, whereas the control group received 6 g/day medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil. At baseline and the end of week 8, serum concentrations of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (sVCAM-1), sE-selectin, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured after a 12- to 14-h fast.
Serum hs-CRP, a systemic inflammation marker, and sVCAM-1, a vascular inflammation marker, reduced significantly in the flaxseed oil group at the end of week 8 compared to baseline (P < 0.05), and the reductions were significant in comparison with the MCT oil group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in mean changes in serum sICAM-1, sE-selectin, and MDA.
This study indicates that daily consumption of 6 g flaxseed oil reduces serum hs-CRP and sVCAM-1, which are two risk factors for CVD. Therefore, the inclusion of flaxseed oil in the usual diet of HD patients can be considered as a strategy for reducing CVD risk factors.
KeywordsFlaxseed oil Hemodialysis Systemic inflammation Vascular inflammation Oxidative stress
The authors thank the staff of the Hemodialysis Units at Taleghani and Modares hospitals in Tehran, Iran, for their invaluable assistance, and the staff of the research laboratory of Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences and the Nutrition research laboratory of the Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology for their technical assistance.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was funded by the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute of Iran (Grant Number 93-5112).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in the publication of the above manuscript. In addition, Dr. Hadi Tabibi has received a research grant from the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute of Iran and declares that he has no conflict of interest with this research institute.
All procedures performed in our study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute of Iran.
Written informed consent was obtained from all patients included in the study.
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