International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 46, Issue 11, pp 2139–2142 | Cite as

Incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis after robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: a prospective study in Chinese patients

  • S. Y. S. Chan
  • V. F. Y. Leung
  • C. H. Yee
  • E. S. Y. Chan
  • S. S. M. Hou
  • W. Chu
  • C. F. NgEmail author
Urology - Original Paper



To investigate the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in Chinese patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer and the need for prophylactic anticoagulation.


From August 2007 to September 2010, patients with prostate cancer undergoing RALP in our center were prospectively recruited for the study. Perioperative parameters, including patients’ age, disease stage and pathology, and intraoperative findings were collected. All patients underwent Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of their bilateral lower limbs on postoperation day 3 for any evidence of DVT. The incidence of and possible predisposing factors for DVT were determined.


One hundred and nine consecutive patients were recruited during the study period. The incidence rate of post-RALP DVT was 16.9 % (18 cases), with only one patient (1 %) developing above-knee DVT. No patient developed DVT-associated complications during follow-up. Patients with DVT were older (69.2 ± 4.4 vs. 65 ± 5.8 years old; p = 0.05), had greater intraoperative blood loss (775 vs. 264.7 ml; p = 0.001) and required lengthier hospitalization (8.1 vs. 6.0 days; p = 0.013). However, no difference in smoking history, body mass index, history of diabetes, lymph node dissection or disease stage was observed between patients with and without DVT.


The post-RALP incidence of DVT in Chinese populations is not low. However, the majority of DVT cases are below the knee level and asymptomatic.


Prostate cancer Deep vein thrombosis Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy Chinese 


Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest related to this publication.


  1. 1.
    Colditz GA, Tuden RL, Oster G (1986) Rates of venous thrombosis after general surgery: combined results of randomized clinical trials. Lancet 19:143–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nandi P, Wong KP, Wei WI, Nagan H, Ong GB (1980) Incidence of post operative deep vein thrombosis in Hong Kong Chinese. Br J Surg 67:251–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rees DC, Cox M, Clegg JB (1995) World distribution of factor V Leiden. Lancet 346:1133–1134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Price DT, Ridker PM (1997) Factor V Leiden mutation and the risks for thromboembolic disease: a clinical perspective. Ann Intern Med 127:895–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ridker PM, Miletich JP, Hennekens CH, Buring JE (1997) Ethnic distribution of factor V Leiden in 4047 men and women: implications for venous thromboembolism screening. JAMA 277:1305–1307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ho CH, Chwang LC, Hwang BH (1995) The influence of high fat diet on the fibrinolytic activity. Thromb Res 77:201–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nandi PL, Li WS, Leung R, Chan J, Chan HT (1998) Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in the Chinese population. HKMJ 4:305–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heinzer H, Hammerer P, Graefen M, Huland H (1998) Thromboembolic complication rate after radical retropubic prostatectomy: impact of routine ultrasonography for the detection of pelvic lyphoceles and haematomas. Eur Urol 33:86–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Augustin H, Hammerer P, Graefen M, Huland H (2003) Intraoperative and perioperative morbidity of contemporary radical retropubic prostatectomy in a consecutive series of 1,243 patients: results of a single center between 1999 and 2002. Eur Urol 43:113–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fernando PS, Thomas J, Anders SB, Georges F, Laurent S, Clement CA, George PH, Inderbir SG, Laura EC, Rebecca AN, Jose R, Cansino A, Luis MP, Michael SC, Ingolf T, Claude S, Troy G, Christopher E, Roxelyn B, Joseph AS, Kim E, Roland VV, Gunter J, Angel MS, Andrew JV, Karim T, Bertrand G (2008) Multi-institutional study of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in prostate cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic or robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol 53:134–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee FY, Chu W, Chan R, Leung YF, Liu KH, Ng SM, Lai PB, Metreweli C, Lau WY (2001) Incidence of deep vein thrombosis after colorectal surgery in a Chinese population. ANZ J Surg 71:637–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cheung HY, Chung CC, Yau KK, Siu WT, Wong SK, Chiu W, Li MK (2008) Risk of deep vein thrombosis following laparoscopic rectosigmoid cancer resection in Chinese population. Asian J Surg 31:63–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Masuda EM, Kessler DM, Kistner RL, Eklof B, Sato DT (1998) The natural history of calf vein thrombosis: lysis of thrombi and development of reflux. J Vasc Surg 28:67–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tollefson MK, Karnes RJ, Rangel L, Carlson R, Boorjian SA (2014) Blood type, lymphadenectomy and blood transfusion predict venous thromboembolic events following radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. J Urol 191:646–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Collins R, Scrimgeour A, Yusuf S, Peto R (1988) Reduction in fatal pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis by perioperative administration of subcutaneous heparin: overview of results of randomized trials in general, orthopedic, and urologic surgery. N Engl J Med 318:1162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Patterson DE, Zincke H (1984) Perioperative complications of pelvic lymphadenopathy and radical retropubic prostatectomy for stages C and D1 prostate cancer. Urol 23:243–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bigg SW, Catalona WJ (1992) Prophylactic mini-dose heparin in patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy: a prospective trial. Urol 39:309–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Y. S. Chan
    • 1
  • V. F. Y. Leung
    • 2
  • C. H. Yee
    • 1
  • E. S. Y. Chan
    • 1
  • S. S. M. Hou
    • 1
  • W. Chu
    • 2
  • C. F. Ng
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.The SH Ho Urology Centre, Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of Imaging and Interventional RadiologyThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  3. 3.Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, 4/F Clinical Science BuildingPrince of Wales HospitalShatinHong Kong

Personalised recommendations