International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 46, Issue 12, pp 2337–2345 | Cite as

Organ cross talk and remote organ damage following acute kidney injury

  • Rele Ologunde
  • Hailin Zhao
  • Kaizhi Lu
  • Daqing MaEmail author
Nephrology - Review


Increasing evidence suggests that acute kidney injury (AKI) mediates a systemic response that can lead to multiple organ failure. AKI may manifest in a variety of clinical scenarios including kidney transplantation and is associated with a significantly high mortality. It has been postulated that specific pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, may mediate a systemic response, resulting in recruitment of pro-inflammatory cells leading to organ failure. However, the specific mechanism by which the cytokine cascade results in distant organ damage is yet to be determined. Furthermore, it remains unclear as to whether cytokines mediate similar or differing responses in different end organs. This review summarizes the effects of AKI on remote organs and explores the role of systemic cytokines in mediating distant organ damage.


Acute kidney injury Cytokine Remote organ injury 



This work was supported by the grants from the Medical Research Council (MRC)-DPFS, European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA), Brussels, Belgium and the Royal College of Anaesthetizes BJA/RCoA.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rele Ologunde
    • 1
  • Hailin Zhao
    • 1
  • Kaizhi Lu
    • 2
  • Daqing Ma
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Section of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College LondonChelsea and Westminster HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology, Southwest HospitalThird Military Medical UniversityChongqingChina

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