Coffee consumption and urologic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of cohort studies
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Controversial results were reported among several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between coffee consumption and urologic cancer risk. We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis to clarify these associations.
Electronic databases including Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane library were searched between January 1966 and August 2013 for eligible studies. Pooled relative risk (RR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated. All P values are two tailed.
Thirteen cohorts were eligible for inclusion. As to prostate cancer (PCa), significant reverse association was found among highest versus none/lowest analysis with acceptable heterogeneity (RR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.79–0.95; I 2 25 %, P value for heterogeneity: 0.221). A pooled RR which assessed advanced PCa was 0.73 (with 95 % CI 0.50–1.07), and a slight stronger reverse association was found in fatal PCa. However, a slight insignificant reverse association, basing on 8 studies with 9 outcomes, was found in dose–response analysis (RR 0.98, 95 % CI 0.93–1.03). For kidney and bladder cancer, insignificant associations were found in both highest versus none/lowest analyses and dose–response analyses.
Our findings suggest that coffee consumption may reduce the risk of PCa. No associations were found with both bladder and kidney cancer. Further well-designed large-scaled cohort studies are warranted to provide more definitive conclusions.
KeywordsCoffee Urologic neoplasms Prostatic neoplasms Urinary bladder neoplasms Renal cell carcinoma Meta-analysis
Tian-bao Huang was responsible for the initial plan, data collection, statistical analysis and for conducting the study. Tian-bao Huang, Yang Yan and Zhui-feng Guo contributed to data collection, data extraction, data interpretation and manuscript drafting. Huan Liu, Xiao-long Zhang, Jiang Geng and Xu-dong Yao contributed to data interpretation and study design. Jun-hua Zheng was the guarantor for this paper and has full responsibility for this study.
Conflict of interest
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