International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 46, Issue 7, pp 1351–1360 | Cite as

A comprehensive evaluation of bladder cancer epidemiology and outcomes in Australia

  • Rajkumar Cheluvappa
  • David P. Smith
  • Sabina Cerimagic
  • Manish I. Patel
Urology – Review



To review bladder cancer statistics and management in Australia and identify gaps for future work here.


Evidence was reviewed from GLOBOCAN 2008v2.0, Pubmed, and conference presentations. We also use data from reports from Cancer Council Australia, State Cancer Councils, and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.


The incidence and mortality rates of bladder cancer in Australia closely parallel those of other developed countries. Bladder cancer was the 8th most common cause of cancer in men, and the 17th most common cause of cancer in women. Bladder cancer was the 13th most common cause of cancer death in men, and the 17th most common cause of cancer death in women. We briefly review the evidence regarding causality, including nutritional, occupational, and environmental factors. We compare Australian incidence and mortality rates internationally, by state/territory, by socioeconomic strata, and by geographical regions. Importantly, we review evidence on the quality of bladder cancer management in Australia.


The geographical, regional, and socioeconomic differences in Australian bladder cancer statistics may be associated with different patterns of diagnosis and treatment.


The quality of bladder cancer surveillance and cystectomies in Australia requires improvement to conform to global standards and to improve decreasing survival rates.


Bladder cancer Australia Incidence and mortality Survival Management Cystectomy 



Australian Capital Territory


Accessibility/Remoteness Index for Australia

ASR (ASR1960W)

Age-Standardised Rate according to 1960 Standard World Population

ASR (ASR2001Aus)

Age-Standardised Rate according to 2001 Standard Australian Population


Inner Regional Australia


Major Cities of Australia


New South Wales


Northern Territory


Outer Regional Australia


Remote Australia


South Australia


Socio-economic Indexes for Areas




Very Remote Australia




Western Australia



We acknowledge the New South Wales Cancer Institute for funding this study through Early Career Research Fellowship: M.I.P.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajkumar Cheluvappa
    • 1
  • David P. Smith
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sabina Cerimagic
    • 1
  • Manish I. Patel
    • 1
  1. 1.The Urological Cancer Outcomes Centre, Department of Surgery, Western Clinical SchoolUniversity of SydneyWestmead, SydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Cancer Research DivisionCancer Council NSWKings CrossAustralia
  3. 3.Griffith Health InstituteGriffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

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