International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 46, Issue 7, pp 1351–1360 | Cite as

A comprehensive evaluation of bladder cancer epidemiology and outcomes in Australia

  • Rajkumar Cheluvappa
  • David P. Smith
  • Sabina Cerimagic
  • Manish I. Patel
Urology – Review

Abstract

Objective

To review bladder cancer statistics and management in Australia and identify gaps for future work here.

Methods

Evidence was reviewed from GLOBOCAN 2008v2.0, Pubmed, and conference presentations. We also use data from reports from Cancer Council Australia, State Cancer Councils, and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Results

The incidence and mortality rates of bladder cancer in Australia closely parallel those of other developed countries. Bladder cancer was the 8th most common cause of cancer in men, and the 17th most common cause of cancer in women. Bladder cancer was the 13th most common cause of cancer death in men, and the 17th most common cause of cancer death in women. We briefly review the evidence regarding causality, including nutritional, occupational, and environmental factors. We compare Australian incidence and mortality rates internationally, by state/territory, by socioeconomic strata, and by geographical regions. Importantly, we review evidence on the quality of bladder cancer management in Australia.

Conclusions

The geographical, regional, and socioeconomic differences in Australian bladder cancer statistics may be associated with different patterns of diagnosis and treatment.

Implications

The quality of bladder cancer surveillance and cystectomies in Australia requires improvement to conform to global standards and to improve decreasing survival rates.

Keywords

Bladder cancer Australia Incidence and mortality Survival Management Cystectomy 

Abbreviations

ACT

Australian Capital Territory

ARIA

Accessibility/Remoteness Index for Australia

ASR (ASR1960W)

Age-Standardised Rate according to 1960 Standard World Population

ASR (ASR2001Aus)

Age-Standardised Rate according to 2001 Standard Australian Population

IR

Inner Regional Australia

MC

Major Cities of Australia

NSW

New South Wales

NT

Northern Territory

OR

Outer Regional Australia

R

Remote Australia

SA

South Australia

SEIFA

Socio-economic Indexes for Areas

TAS

Tasmania

VR

Very Remote Australia

Vs.

Versus

WA

Western Australia

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the New South Wales Cancer Institute for funding this study through Early Career Research Fellowship: M.I.P.

Conflict of interest

None.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajkumar Cheluvappa
    • 1
  • David P. Smith
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sabina Cerimagic
    • 1
  • Manish I. Patel
    • 1
  1. 1.The Urological Cancer Outcomes Centre, Department of Surgery, Western Clinical SchoolUniversity of SydneyWestmead, SydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Cancer Research DivisionCancer Council NSWKings CrossAustralia
  3. 3.Griffith Health InstituteGriffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

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