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Multifocality in testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT): what is the significance of this finding?

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The aim of the study is to determine the association between multifocality and the pathological features of testicular germ cell tumors and its clinical implication.


Orchiectomy specimens from 254 consecutive patients with testis cancer between 2003 and 2013 were included. Multifocality was defined as a distinct tumor focus of cluster of malignant cells > 0.5 mm and separable from the main tumor mass. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between multifocality and other pathological features. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify potential predictive factors of multifocality for clinical stages II–III and the pathological stage ≥ pT2.


Median patient age was 33 years (range 19–70). Multifocality was identified in 58 (22.83 %) orchiectomy specimens. Subjects with multifocality had larger primary tumor lesions (3.7 vs. 3.0 cm; p < 0.05). No association was found between histology and multifocality (p = 0.95). On univariate logistic regression analysis, multifocality was not significantly associated with all pathological features. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, multifocality was not demonstrated to be an adverse pathological feature of clinical stages II–III (p = 0.23) or pathological stage ≥ pT2 (p = 0.30) when included in a model with tumor size ≥ 4 cm and rete testis invasion in seminoma tumor and neither of clinical stages II–III (p = 0.36) or pathological stage ≥ pT2 (p = 0.20) when included in a model with lymphovascular invasion and percentage of embrional cancer ≥ 50 % in non-seminoma ones.


Multifocality should not be considered an adverse pathological feature in patients with testis cancer, independently to histological subtypes.

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Each author discloses that no competing financial interests exist.

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Correspondence to Giorgio Ivan Russo.

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Favilla, V., Russo, G.I., Spitaleri, F. et al. Multifocality in testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT): what is the significance of this finding?. Int Urol Nephrol 46, 1131–1135 (2014).

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  • Testicular cancer
  • Multifocality
  • Pathology