To determine the metabolic risk factors in children and adults with urinary system stone disease.
Materials and methods
Between September 2008 and February 2011, 257 patients who underwent 24-h urine analysis because of urinary system stone disease were included in the present study. Group I and II include only adult patients. The first-time stone formers were named as Group I (n = 106), and recurrent stone formers were named as Group II (n = 107). Group III was occurred by pediatric patients (n = 44). Control group includes 105 people was called as Group IV. This group was divided into two subgroups. Group IVa includes 70 adult people, and Group IVb includes 35 children. The metabolic evaluation results of patients and control groups were compared.
Hypercalciuria (35.8, 44.9, and 47.7 % for Group I, II, and III, respectively) and hypocitraturia (42.5, 40.2, and 50 % for Group I, II, and III, respectively) were most common risk factors for stone formation. However, unlike the literature, we have seen that hypomagnesiuria is also an important risk factor in adults and children. Hypomagnesiuria was defined at 36.4 % in Group I, 29 % in Group II, and 56.8 % in Group III (p < 0.05 for each group). These three parameters were significantly different between patient and control groups.
Hypomagnesiuria, hypocitraturia, and hypercalciuria are the most important risk factors for stone formation in adults and pediatric patients.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Oğuz, U., Resorlu, B. & Unsal, A. Metabolic evaluation of patients with urinary system stone disease: a research of pediatric and adult patients. Int Urol Nephrol 46, 329–334 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255-013-0539-3
- Metabolic evaluation
- Risk factors