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International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 45, Issue 5, pp 1423–1428 | Cite as

Non-tuberculous mycobacterial PD peritonitis in Australia

  • Simon H. Jiang
  • Darren M. Roberts
  • Philip A. Clayton
  • Meg Jardine
Nephrology - Original Paper

Abstract

Purpose

Peritonitis can be a severe complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) due to associated morbidity and mortality. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a rare cause of PD peritonitis, with high rates of catheter removal and conversion to haemodialysis, and a reported mortality as high as 40 %. The incidence, culprit NTM species, and outcomes associated with PD peritonitis have not been described in many countries, including Australia.

Methods

We examined the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry from 1 October 2003 to 31 December 2009 for all prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients. Patient characteristics, organisms, treatment and outcome for all NTM PD peritonitis episodes were obtained.

Results

Twelve cases of NTM PD peritonitis were reported, including the first reports of infection due to Mycobacterium hassiacum and Mycobacterium neoaurum. The incidence of NTM PD peritonitis was approximately 1 per 1000 PD patient-years. Recovery occurred in 11 patients, including 3 without removal of their Tenckhoff catheters. A range of antibiotics were utilised. One patient died of sclerosing peritonitis 5 months after diagnosis of PD peritonitis.

Conclusion

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria PD peritonitis is a rare cause of peritonitis, and mortality may be lower than previously reported. Catheter removal occurred in the majority of patients, and adverse outcomes were not observed for those in whom it was retained.

Keywords

Incidence Mortality Mycobacterium Peritoneal dialysis Peritonitis Treatment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Medical and nursing staff from Australian Renal units for their contributions to the database.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have not conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon H. Jiang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Darren M. Roberts
    • 1
    • 2
  • Philip A. Clayton
    • 1
    • 3
  • Meg Jardine
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Renal MedicineRoyal Prince Alfred HospitalCamperdownAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Renal MedicineConcord General and Repatriation HospitalConcordAustralia
  3. 3.Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant RegistryRoyal Adelaide HospitalAdelaideAustralia
  4. 4.The George Institute for Global HealthCamperdownAustralia

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