Depressive symptoms and chronic kidney disease: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006
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Background and objective
Depression is common in individuals with end-stage renal disease. However, its relationship with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is less well known. In this study, we examined the association between depressive symptoms and CKD.
Cross-sectional analysis of the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) among adult participants with CKD in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006. CKD was defined according to estimated glomerular filtration rate by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or the presence of microalbuminuria (≥30 mg/g creatinine), using the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative classification. A PHQ-9 score ≥ 10 was considered to be indicative of depressive symptoms.
Among 3653 subjects in our study sample, 683 (15.2%) met laboratory criteria for CKD. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–10.8%) in subjects with CKD and 6% (95% CI 4.6–7.4%) in subjects without CKD (P = 0.6). In regression analysis, the presence of CKD was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio = 0.96 [95% CI 0.51, 1.78], P = 0.9).
We found no difference in the prevalence of depressive symptoms among individuals with or without CKD.
KeywordsChronic kidney disease Depression National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Prevalence
The abstract of this manuscript was presented at the 2009 Scientific Meetings of the National Kidney Foundation in Nashville, TN. Ana C. Ricardo: Research support: University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), Award Number UL1RR029879 from the National Center for Research Resources. Financial disclosure: none. Michael J. Fischer: VA HSR&D Career Development Award. Financial disclosure: none. Andrew Peck, Mary Turyk, James P. Lash: none.
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