The effect of prostate cancer screening on stage IV disease in America
- 50 Downloads
Some studies have found that prostate cancer (PCa) screening provides little or no change in PCa-related mortality during the 7–10 years following diagnoses. However, most men are diagnosed with PCa at low-stage disease and die of unrelated causes during this period. Men diagnosed at stage IV are at much higher risk of dying of the disease. Therefore, stage IV rates at first diagnoses may be a surrogate marker of PCa-related mortality over a time span less than 10 years. The study objective is to examine the association between PCa screening and stage IV disease rates in new cases to explore potential benefits for PCa screening.
Materials and methods
The percent of stages I, II, III, IV and unclassified PCa diagnosed in white males in 2005 was compared to PCa screening rates on a state-by-state basis. To consider access to medical care and socioeconomic status, median family income, degree of urbanization, urologist population density and health insurance status were included in the analysis.
PCa stage IV disease correlated inversely with PCa screening rates (r = –0.42, P = 0.006) where r is the correlation coefficient and P is the probability. Stage I PCa correlated with lack of health insurance (r = 0.37, P = 0.02).
The results of this study suggest that with PCa screening may be associated with reduced rates of stage IV disease.
KeywordsCancer prevention and control Prostate cancer United States/epidemiology
- 1.American Cancer Society (2009) Cancer facts & figures 2009. American Cancer Society, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
- 4.Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Cancer Statistics Review 1975–2005, Table XXIII-5, PROSTATE CANCER SURVIVAL RATES, BY RACE, DIAGNOSIS YEAR, STAGE AND AGE, National Cancer InstituteGoogle Scholar
- 5.Benchmark Reports for RACE/STAGE of Prostate Cancer Diagnosed in 2005. http://www.facs.org/cancer/ncdb/publicaccess.html. Accessed 10 April 2008
- 6.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics (2006) Health data for all ages. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/health_data_for_all_ages.htm. Accessed 8 Sep 2006
- 7.US Census Bureau Data. Accessed at: http://www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.html. [Accessed 8 September 2006]
- 8.Knox M, Clayton D, Colli J, (2009) Prostate cancer mortality projected by stage for males diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2008 in the United States. Southeastern Section Meeting AUA, Mobile, Alabama in March 2009Google Scholar
- 11.Benchmark Reports for RACE/TREATMENT of Prostate Cancer Diagnosed in 2006. http://www.facs.org/cancer/ncdb/publicaccess.html. Accessed 10 April 2008