The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infertility in Qatari men with Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and to examine the association between T2DM and infertility.
This is a cross-sectional study.
The survey was conducted at Primary Health Care Centers during a period from January 2008 to June 2008.
The selected subjects for the study were Qatari men aged 25–60 years who were married for more than 1 year. A total of 1,165 men were approached and only 857 men gave consent, giving a response rate of 73.6%.
Face-to-face interviews were based on a questionnaire that included variables on socio-demographic characteristics, type of infertility in men, life style habits, type of environmental exposures, and common diseases found among infertile men. All studied men were recruited using cluster random sampling at 13 randomly selected primary health care centers at the Hamad Medical Corporation.
The prevalence of infertility in Qatari T2DM men was 35.1%. The prevalence of primary infertility (16%) and secondary infertility (19.1%) was significantly higher in diabetic men (P = 0.003) as compared to non-diabetic men. Also, secondary infertility was higher than primary infertility in our studied Qatari diabetic men. Half of the diabetic infertile men were overweight (50.6%) and 29.1% of them were obese. The smoking habit was more common in diabetic infertile men (45.6%) than in diabetic fertile men (33.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that age (P < 0.001), smoking habits (ex-smokers, P = 0.003 and current smokers, P = 0.001) and obesity (P < 0.001) were the significant major contributors for infertility in diabetic men. Obesity was the leading contributor for the infertility. Other co-morbid factors associated with infertility in diabetic men were hypertension, erectile dysfunction, and varicocele.
The present study findings revealed that there is a strong association between male infertility and Diabetes Mellitus. In Qatari diabetic men, male infertility is high and a significant public health problem in Qatar. The study results confirmed a strong association between T2DM and infertility in Qatari men.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
World Health Organization (2002) Diabetes: the cost of diabetes. (Fact sheet no. 236)
Agbaje IM, Rogers DA, McVicar CM, McClure N, Atkinson AB, Mallidis C, Lewis SE (2007) Insulin dependant diabetes mellitus: implications for male reproductive function. Hum Reprod 22(7):1871–1877. doi:10.1093/humrep/dem077
Glenn DR, McClure N, Lewis SE (2003) The hidden impact of diabetes on male sexual dysfunction and fertility. Hum Fertil (Camb) 6:174–179
Sexton JW, Jarow JP (1997) Effect of diabetes mellitus upon male reproductive function. Urology 49:508–513. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(96)00573-0
Spano M, Bonde JP et al (2000) Sperm Chromalin damage impairs human fertility: the danish first pregnancy planner study team. Fertil Sterile 73:43–50. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(99)00462-8
Zini A, Bielecki R, Phang D et al (2001) Correlation between two markers of sperm DNA integrity, DNA denaturation and DNA fragmentation, in fertile and infertile men. Fertil Steril 75:674–677. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(00)01796-9
Dinnulovic D, Radonjic G (1990) Diabetes mellitus, male infertility. Arch Androl 25:277–293. doi:10.3109/01485019008987617
Roth LK, Taylor MS (2001) Risks of smoking to reproductive health: assessment of women’s knowledge. Am J Obstet Gynecol 184:934–939. doi:10.1067/mob.2001.112103
Albert KG, Zimmet PZ (1998) Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 15:539–553. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199807)15:7<539::AID-DIA668>3.0.CO;2-S
Kim SH, Chunawala L, Linde R, Reaven GM (2006) Comparison of the 1997 and 2003 American Diabetes Association classification of impaired fasting glucose: impact on prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, coronary heart disease risk factors, and coronary heart disease in a community-based medical practice. J Am Coll Cardiol 48:293–297. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.03.043
WHO (1991) Infertility: a tabulation of available data on prevalence of primary and secondary infertility, Geneva: WHO programme on maternal and child health and family planning, Division of Family Health
Shaban S, Seaman E, Lipschultz LI (1991) Treatment of abnormalities of ejaculation. In: Lipschultz LI, Howards SS (eds) Infertility in the male, vol 3. Mosby year book, St Louis, pp 423–438
Sigman M, Jarrow J (2002) Male infertility. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Vaugh ED Jr., Wein AJ (eds) Campbell’s urology (8th edn). Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1475–1531
Zheng M, Li G, Fan W, Zhang X, Chen S, Wang J et al (1999) The etiology of impotence in 326 diabetic adults. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 38:546–549
Geelhoed DN, Nayembil D, Asare K, Schagenvan LJH, Roosmalen J (2002) Infertility in rural Ghana. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 79:137–142
Braun M, Wassmer G, Klotz T, Reifenrath B, Mathers M, Engelmann U (2000) Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction: results of the “Cologne Male survey”. Int J Impot Res 12:305–311. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3900622
Johannes CB, Araujo AB, Feldman HA, Derby CA, Kleinman KP, Mckinlay JB (2000) Incidence of ED in men 40 to 69 years old: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts male aging study. J Urol 163:460–463. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)67900-1
Tambi MI, Glasser DB (2003) Epidemiology of ED in 4 countries: cross sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of ED. Urology 61:201–206. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(02)02102-7
Delfino M, Imbrogno N, Elia J, Capogreco F, Mazzilli F (2007) Prevalence of DM in male partners of infertile couples. Minerva Urol Nefrol 59:131–135
Dunsmuir WD, Holmes SA (1996) The aetiology and management of erectile, ejaculatory and fertility problems in men with DM. Diabet Med 13:700–708. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199608)13:8<700::AID-DIA174>3.0.CO;2-8
Bener A, Al-Hamaq AOAA, Kamran S, Al-Ansari A (2008) Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in stroke male patients and associated co-morbidities and risk factors. Int Urol Nephrol 40(3):701–708. doi:10.1007/s11255-008-9334-y
Fedorcsak P, Dale PO, Storeng R, Ertzeid G, Bjercke S, Oldereid N, Omland AK et al (2004) Impact of overweight and underweight on assisted reproduction treatment. Hum Reprod 19:2523–2528. doi:10.1093/humrep/deh485
Kunzle R, Mueller MD, Hanggi W, Birkhauser MH, Drescher H, Bersinger NA (2003) Semen quality of male smokers and non smokers in infertile couples. Fertil Steril 79:287–291. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(02)04664-2
(www.medico.com)/diabetes/sex-urological-problems. Accessed 19 Jun 2008
This work was funded by Qatar Diabetic Association and Qatar Foundation. The project was supported and approved by Ethical Review Committee at Hamad Medical Corporation, Project ID (7085/2007), Doha, the State of Qatar.
About this article
Cite this article
Bener, A., Al-Ansari, A.A., Zirie, M. et al. Is male fertility associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus?. Int Urol Nephrol 41, 777 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255-009-9565-6
- Male infertility
- Risk factors
- Erectile dysfunction