Hypertension and kidney protection in the elderly: what is the evidence in 2007?
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Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are the two most widely recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis/transplantation; both become increasingly important as one ages. Common pathways and mechanisms are involved in the development of renal vascular lesions in both conditions, and effective treatments for each are now available to reduce morbidity, mortality and progression of organ damage. Although this review will focus primarily on the ability to protect the kidney and vasculature elsewhere by lowering blood pressure in the elderly, other approaches, specifically dietary restriction of protein, strict control of diabetes mellitus, and the management of the different dyslipidemias, must be used in conjunction with the antihypertensive agents to obtain optimum protection.