International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 721–726 | Cite as

Utility of Volume Adjusted Prostate Specific Antigen Density in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in Arab Men

  • M. Sheikh
  • O. Al-Saeed
  • E.O. Kehinde
  • T. Sinan
  • J. T. Anim
  • Y. Ali


Background: This study was undertaken to assess the utility of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and PSA density (PSAD) in discriminating between benign and malignant prostate disease in the Kuwaiti Arab population.Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients suspected of having prostate cancer because of serum PSA > 4 ng/ml, or detection of a prostatic nodule on rectal examination were further investigated by determination of PSAD, TRUS of prostate, sexant prostatic biopsy and histological analysis to establish the correct diagnosis. Other diagnostic measures included the determination of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity and specificity. Results: Of the 100 prostate biopsies that were performed, 33 cases were confirmed to be prostate cancer and 67 were described as benign lesions comprising benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with or without prostatitis. The age range for patients with prostate cancer was 42–90 years, and 52–90 years for those without prostate cancer. The mean prostate volume was 58.82 cc (range 9–177 cc) and 62.60 cc (range 15–140 cc), the mean PSA value was 36.65 ng/ml (range 5.8–200 ng/ml) and 16.49 ng/ml (range 1.4–46.0 ng/ml), while the mean PSAD was 0.92 (range 0.046–5.714) and 0.452 (range 0.034–2.294) for patients with prostate cancer and patients without prostate cancer respectively. Patients with PSA less than 4 ng/ml (3 cases) all had benign prostate lesions, and 7 cases with PSA more than 50 ng/ml all had prostate cancer and were excluded because values above 50 ng/ml have close to 100% specificity for prostate cancer. Further analysis was done on the remaining 90 cases which were patients with a PSA between 4 and 50 ng/ml. The discriminating power of serum PSA for detecting prostate cancer as estimated by the area under ROC was 0.686 while that for PSAD was 0.732. The maximum likelihood for a positive PSA was at a PSAD cut-off point of 0.32. For the PSA cut-off point of l0 ng/ml, the sensitivity was 80%, and specificity was 42.2%. For the PSAD cut-off point of 0.32, the sensitivity was 58% and the specificity 76.6%. Conclusions: Determination of PSAD is not a useful adjunct to serum PSA values in the range of 10–50 ng/ ml in our population. PSAD value less than 0.32 with PSA less than l0 ng/ml strongly suggests benign disease.


Arab men Diagnosis Prostate cancer Prostate specific antigen density 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Sheikh
    • 1
  • O. Al-Saeed
    • 1
  • E.O. Kehinde
    • 2
  • T. Sinan
    • 1
  • J. T. Anim
    • 3
  • Y. Ali
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Faculty of MedicineKuwait UniversitySafatKuwait
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Faculty of MedicineKuwait UniversityKuwait
  3. 3.Department of Pathology, Faculty of MedicineKuwait UniversityKuwait

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