International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 283–289 | Cite as

Diet and Bladder Cancer: A Case–Control Study

  • V. RadosavljevićEmail author
  • S. Janković
  • J. Marinković
  • M. Dokić


To investigate possible relationships between diet and risk for bladder cancer in Serbia, the hospital-based case–control study was carried out. This study included 130 newly diagnosed bladder cancer patients and the same number of controls matched by sex, age (%±%2 years) and type of residence (rural or urban). Dietary information was obtained by using a food frequency questionnaire. Initial case–control comparisons were based on tertiles of average daily intake of control group. The odds ratios (ORs) were computed for each tertile, with the lowest tertile defined as the referent category. All variables (food items) significantly related to bladder cancer were included in multivariable logistic regression analysis. According to this analysis, risk factors for bladder cancer appeared to be consumption of liver (OR=6.60, 95%CI=1.89–23.03), eggs (OR=3.12, 95%CI=1.10–8.80), pork (OR=2.99, 95%CI=1.16–7.72), and pickled vegetable (OR=3.25, 95%CI=1.36–7.71). A protective effect was found for dietary intake of kale (OR=0.21, 95%CI=0.06–0.73), cereals (OR=0.19, 95%CI=0.06–0.62), tangerines (OR=0.21, 95%CI=0.07–0.68), cabbage (OR=0.27, 95% CI=0.11–0.68), and carrots (OR=0.15, 95%CI=0.05–0.41). The study indicated a potentially important role for dietary fat and pickled vegetables in bladder carcinogenesis. An inverse association was recorded between consumption of fruits, vegetables and cereals, and the development of bladder cancer.


Bladder cancer Case–control study Diet 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Metts, MC, Metts, JC, Milito, SJ, Thomas, CR,Jr. 2000Bladder cancer: a review of diagnosis and managementJ Natl Med Assoc92285294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Janković, S, Jevremović, I, Gledović, Z, Marković-Denić, Lj, Radosavljević, V, Radovanović, Z. 1995The mortality of men in Serbia caused by the most frequent malignant tumorsVojnosanit Pregl52233236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vlajinac, H, MarinkovićJ, , IlićM, , Kocev, N. 1997Diet and prostate cancer: a case–control studyEur J Cancer33101107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bladder. In: Word Cancer Research Fund: Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: a global Perspective. Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Cancer Research, 1997; 338–361.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hebert, JR, Miller, DR 1994A cross-national investigation of diet and bladder cancerEur J Cancer30778784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Riboli, E, Gonzales, CA, Lopez-Abente G, et al. 1991Diet and bladder cancer in Spain: a multi-centre case–control studyInt J Cancer49214219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bruemmer, B, White, E, Vaughan, TL, Cheney, CL. 1996Nutrient intake in relation to bladder cancer among middle-aged men and womenAm J Epidemiol144485495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vena, JE, Graham, S, Freudenheim, J,  et al. 1992Diet in the epidemiology of bladder cancer in western New YorkNutr Cancer18255264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Steineck, G, Hagman, U, Gerhardsson, M, Norell, SE. 1990Vitamin A supplements, fried foods, fat and urothelial cancer. A case–referent study in Stockholm in 1985–87Int J Cancer4510061011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Balbi, JC, Larrinaga, MT, De Stefani, E,  et al. 2001Foods and risk of bladder cancer: a case–control study in UruguayEur J Cancer Prev10453458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wakai, K, Takashi, M, Okamura, K,  et al. 2000Foods and nutrients in relation to bladder cancer risk: a case–contol study in Aichi Prefecture, Central JapanNutr Cancer381322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kitano, M, Mori, S, Chen, T, Murai, T, Fukuchima, S. 1995Lack of promoting effects of linoleic or palmitic acid on urinary bladder carcinogenesis in ratsJpn J Cancer Res86530534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Steineck, G, Norell, SE, Feychting, M 1988Diet, tobacco and urothelial cancerActa Oncol.27323327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wilkens, LR, Kadir, MM, Kolonel, LN, Nomura, AM, Hankin, JH. 1996Risk factors for lower urinary tract cancer: the role of total fluid consumption, nitrites and nitrosamines, and selected foodsCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev5161166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mills, PK, Beeson, WL, Phillips, RL, Fraser, GE. 1991Bladder cancer in a low risk population: results from the Adventist health studyAm J Epidemiol133230239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hirayama, T. 1990Life-style and MortalityKargerBaselGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chyou, PH, Nomura, AMY, Stemmermann, GM. 1993A prospective study of diet, smoking, and lower urinary tract cancerAnn Epidemiol3211216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Risch, HA, Burch, JD, Miller, AB, Hill, GB, Steele, R, Howe, GR. 1988Dietary factors and the incidence of cancer of the urinary bladderAm J Epidemiol12711791191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ohashi, Y, Nakai, S, Tsukamoto, T,  et al. 2002Habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria and risk reduction of bladder cancerUrol Int68273280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Claude, J, Kunze, E, Frentzel-Beyme, R, Paczkowski, K, Schneider, I, Schubert, H 1996Life-style and occupational risk factors in cancer of the lower urinary tractAm J Epidemiol124578589Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Michaud, DS, Spiegelman, D, Clinton, SK, Rimm, EB, Willett, WC, Giovannucci, EL. 1999Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohortJ Natl Cancer Inst91605613CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nagano, J, Kono, S, Preston, DL,  et al. 2000Bladder-cancer incidence in relation to vegetable and fruit consumption: a prospective study of atomic-bomb survivorsInt J Cancer86132138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Steinmaus, CM, Nunez, S, Smith, AH. 2000Diet and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of six dietary variablesAm J Epidemiol151693702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Negri, E, La Vecchia, C, Franceschi, S, D’Avanzo, B, Parazzini, F. 1991Vegateble and fruit consumption and cancer riskInt J Cancer48350354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nomura, AMY, Kolonel, LN, Hankin, JH, Yoshizawa, CN. 1991Dietary factors in cancer of the lower urinary tractInt J Cancer48199205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mettlin, C, Graham, S. 1979Dietary risk factors in human bladder cancerAm J Epidemiol110255263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shibata, A, Paganini-Hill, A, Ross, RK, Henderson, BE. 1992Intake of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective studyBr J Cancer66673679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mucci, LA, Dickman, PW, Steineck, G, Adami, HO, Augustsson, K. 2003Dietary acrylamide and cancer of the large bowel, kidney, and bladder: absence of an association in a population-based study in SwedenBr J Cancer888489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Momas, I, Daures, JP, Festy, B, Bontoux, J, Gremy, F. 1994Relative importance of risk factors in bladder carcinogenesis: some new results about Mediterranean habitsCancer Causes Control5326332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Radosavljević
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Janković
    • 2
  • J. Marinković
    • 3
  • M. Dokić
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Preventive MedicineBelgrade UniversityZemun-BelgradeSerbia and Montenegro
  2. 2.Institute of Epidemiology, School of MedicineBelgrade UniversitySerbia
  3. 3.Institute for Statistics and Informatics, School of MedicineBelgrade UniversitySerbia
  4. 4.Institute of Urology and Nephrology, Clinical Center of Serbia, School of MedicineBelgrade UniversityBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations