Can the Complicated Forgotten Indwelling Ureteric Stents be Lethal?
Introduction: The forgotten ureteral stents remain a urological dilemma and complications related to it can be lethal for the patient. The management of such stents require lithotripsy and endourological techniques. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 19 cases of forgotten stents managed between 1998 and 2003. The mean patient age was 32 ± l2 years, male to female ratio 17:2 and the mean duration of stents in urinary system was 24.2 months (7 months to l0 years). The stent were complicated in 14 patients and 5 patients had uncomplicated stents. The stents were severely calcified and encrusted in 6 patients, large stone formation seen at upper end of stent in 2 patients and at lower end of stents in 2 patients. The stents were spontaneously fragmented in 2 patients. The advanced renal failure secondary to hydroureteronephrosis because of severe encrustation and stone formation over the stent in solitary kidney was seen in 1 patient and 1 patient had upmigrated stent with infected hydronephrosis, but the duration of upmigration in this case was unknown. Results: The stents were removed by retrograde approach in all 5 uncomplicated cases. In 6 patients of severely calcified and encrusted stents, the retrograde stent removal could be done in 4 patients while stent got broken in proximal ureter in 2 cases when they were being removed. In these 2 cases the stents were removed by percutaneous nephrostomy. The percutaneous nephrolithotomy and stent removal was done in 2 patients who had large stone at the upper end of stent in renal pelvis. In 2 patients who had large stone formation at lower end, stones were fragmented by mechanical lithotripsy in one and by laser lithotripsy in another case and stents removed by retrograde approach. Two cases of spontaneous fragmented stents were managed by retrograde endoscopic approach. The patient of advanced renal failure refused treatment and died. The patient of infective hydronephrosis with upmigrated stent died because of complications related to operative intervention. Conclusions: The management of complicated forgotten ureteral stents need judicious use of endourological techniques and lithotripsy. The stent related complication can be directly lethal for the patient or indirectly can cause death because of complications related to operative intervention.
KeywordsComplication Forgotten Lethal Stents Ureter
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