Cardiorenal Disease: A Clinical Intersection
- Cite this article as:
- Kalra, V., Mahajan, S., Agarwal, S.K. et al. Int Urol Nephrol (2005) 37: 175. doi:10.1007/s11255-004-1561-2
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This review focuses on the association between renal insufficiency and cardiovascular disease and discusses therapeutic options. Although the association of chronic renal insufficiency and cardiovascular risk was first shown in patients with end-stage renal disease, even minor renal dysfunction has now been established as an independent risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and statins can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with renal insufficiency. Coronary revascularization improves the prognosis in patients with renal dysfunction, but there is still an underutilization of coronary revascularization procedures in patients with renal insufficiency. There is enough data that shows high mortality after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in patients with reduced renal function and that slight renal dysfunction exposes the patient with a cardiac event to an excessive cardiac mortality. Further investigation should focus on the cause of and possible preventive interventions, for the staggering cardiovascular risk in the ever-increasing number of people with renal dysfunction.