Urban Ecosystems

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 567–581 | Cite as

Investigating domestic gardens’ densities, spatial distribution and types among city districts

  • Salman D. Al-KofahiEmail author
  • Anne A. Gharaibeh
  • Emad Y. Bsoul
  • Yahia A. Othman
  • Rolston St. Hilaire


Domestic gardens are the major contributor to greening the spatial plan in some compact cities. Irbid, Jordan is a densely populated city that has limited and deteriorating natural vegetation and is located in an arid to semi-arid climate. We investigated the density of domestic gardens (proportion of gardened residential units) in Irbid city and explored some properties of domestic gardens. The research focused on the city domestic garden types, their distribution, gardens proportions and association to household economic status and parcel area. Four hundred and thirty residential units were selected randomly using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The sample size for each district was identified proportionally relative to the district’s total residential units. Parcel area, district population, household income and landscape properties information were obtained from GIS maps, homeowners’ interviews or on site observations. Sixty-two percent of the city residential units had gardens and those gardens were distributed unequally (21–100%) among city districts. Rural areas had higher garden densities (proportions) compared to that at the city center. Around 50% of the city gardens were utilitarian and were concentrated in the rural areas, while the aesthetically designed gardens represented 21% of the total gardens and were significantly concentrated near the core urban area of the city. Around 53% of the city domestic gardens were categorized as side yards. The districts’ domestic garden proportions and parcel sizes were positively correlated. The proportions of aesthetic gardens were positively correlated with districts’ median income while utilitarian garden proportions strongly and inversely correlated with districts income. This knowledge about the proportions of domestic gardens distribution, trends, garden attributes and other factors that interfere with the existence and shape of domestic gardens has implications for species composition and can serve as a basis for green infrastructure planning, sustainable environmental planning strategies, and land use policies.


Domestic gardens Urban greenspace Garden types Rural-urban gradient Median income 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salman D. Al-Kofahi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anne A. Gharaibeh
    • 2
  • Emad Y. Bsoul
    • 3
  • Yahia A. Othman
    • 4
  • Rolston St. Hilaire
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Land Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and EnvironmentThe Hashemite UniversityZarqaJordan
  2. 2.Department of City Planning and Design, Faculty of Architecture and DesignJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  3. 3.Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of SciencesThe Hashemite UniversityZarqaJordan
  4. 4.Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Faculty of AgricultureThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  5. 5.Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureNew Mexico State UniversityLas CrucesUSA

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