The ecology of littoral zone Chironomidae in four artificial, urban, tropical Malaysian lakes
Urbanization is increasingly compromising lakes in the rapidly developing countries of tropical Southeast Asia. Greater understanding of the ecology of tropical lakes is essential in order to determine the best ways to protect and manage them. A comparison was made of the species richness, abundance and diets of Chironomidae in two forest lakes (both created by damming rivers - one in an urban forest reserve, one adjacent to an urban area) and two urban park lakes (ex- tin mine lakes) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 19 species of chironomids were recorded (10 collector-gatherers, one collector-filterer, one shredder, 3 predators and 4 predators/grazers). The most abundant species were Polypedilum leei, Tanytarsus formosanus, Zavreliella marmorata and Procladius sp.. Conductivity was highest in the urban park lakes due to pollution. Temperature was also highest in the urban park lakes due to lower riparian canopy cover and lower macrophyte abundance. Larval abundance (mostly collector-gathering Chironominae) was significantly higher in the forest lakes compared to the urban park lakes, which could be related to cleaner water and higher vegetation cover which provided more food resources (leaf litter and periphyton) and more microhabitats. Predatory tanypods were most abundant in forest lakes which also had the highest numbers of their prey (Chironominae). Four predatory species of Tanypodinae supplemented their diet with blue-green algae in two of the urban lakes. Only one collector-filterer (Corynoneura sp.) was recorded (only in the forest lakes).
KeywordsCommunity structure Species richness Functional feeding groups
This work was part of the research for BSc Honours by JML funded by Monash University Malaysia. We thank the following for their assistance in the field and lab: Asrani Shabana Sundrasaykarum, Joanne Tong Lai Mun, Lee Kah Mern, Lee Kong Ving, Nina Azrah and Shak Chee Hoi. Our gratitude goes to Jon Martin from the University of Melbourne for his expertise in identifying the Chironominae.
- Clarke KR (1993) Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Aust J Ecol 18:117–143. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.1993.tb00438.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cranston PS (2004) Insecta: Diptera: Chironomidae. In: Yule CM, Yong HS (eds) Freshwater invertebrates of the Malaysian region. Academy of Sciences Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, pp 711–735Google Scholar
- Cranston PS (2007) The Chironomidae larvae associated with the tsunami-impacted waterbodies of the coastal plain of southwestern Thailand. Raffles Bull Zool 55:231–244Google Scholar
- Cranston PS (2010) Electronic Guide to The Chironomidae of Australia. http://apes.skullisland.info/sites/default/files/webfiles/members/pete/start.pdf.
- Downing JA (2010) Emerging global role of small lakes and ponds: little things mean a lot. Limnetica 29:9–24Google Scholar
- Elmqvist T, Colding J, Barthel S, Borgstrom S, Duit A, Lundberg J, ... Bengtsson J (2004) The dynamics of social-ecological systems in urban landscapes: Stockholm and the National Urban Park, Sweden. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1023:308–322. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1319.017 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Harada S, Wagatsuma R, Koseki T, Aok iT, Hashimoto T (2013) Water quality criteria for water bodies in urban areas and accompanying changes in surrounding and in-situ vegetation: considerations from the landscape aspect of planning water recreational areas. J Water Resour Prot 5:156–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jeppesen E, Sondergaard M, Mazzeo N, Meerhoff M, Branco C, Huszar V, Scasso F (2005) Lake restoration and biomanipulation in temperate lakes: relevance for subtropical and tropical lakes. In: Reddy MV (ed) Tropical eutrophic lakes: their restoration and management. Oxford & I.B.H. Publishing, New Hampshire, pp 331–359Google Scholar
- Joniak T, Kaminska A, Goldyn R (2000) Influence of the wind on vertical changes of water properties in a shallow reservoir. In: Gurgul H (ed) Physicochemical problems of natural water ecology, vol 2. Scientific Publishing House, University of Szczecin, pp 67–76Google Scholar
- Koroiva R, Souza C, Toyama D, Henrique-Silva F, Fonseca-Gessner A (2013) Lignocellulolytic enzymes and bacteria associated with the digestive tracts of Stenochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae. Genet Mol Res 12:3421–3434. https://doi.org/10.4238/2013.April.2.2 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lewis WM (1996) Tropical lakes: how latitude makes a difference. In: Schiemer F, Boland KT (eds) Perspectives in tropical limnology. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, pp 43–64Google Scholar
- McCune B, Grace JB (2002) Analysis of ecological data. MjM Software, OregonGoogle Scholar
- Merritt RW, Cummins KW (1996) An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America, 3rd edn. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, DubuqueGoogle Scholar
- Naselli-Flores L (2008) Urban lakes: ecosystems at risk, worthy of the best care. Paper presented at the TAAL 2007: the 12th World Lake ConferenceGoogle Scholar
- Sanseverino A, Nessimian J (2008) The food of larval Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera) in submerged litter in a forest stream of the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Acta Limnol Bras 20:15–20Google Scholar
- Sharip Z, Zakaria S (2008) Lakes and reservoir in Malaysia: management and research challenges. Paper presented at the TAAL 2007: the 12th World Lake ConferenceGoogle Scholar
- Sterner R, Elser J (2002) Ecological stoichiometry. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
- Yule CM (2004) Freshwater environments. In: Yule CM, Yong HS (eds) Freshwater invertebrates of the Malaysian region. Academy of Sciences Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, pp 1–12Google Scholar