Advertisement

Urban Ecosystems

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 711–722 | Cite as

Insects on urban plants: contrasting the flower head feeding assemblages on native and exotic hosts

  • Paula Perre
  • Rafael D. Loyola
  • Thomas M. Lewinsohn
  • Mário Almeida-NetoEmail author
Article

Abstract

Exotic plant species very often comprise a large proportion of urban floras. Because herbivorous insects depend on the presence of suitable host plants to maintain their populations, it is imperative to elucidate the relative importance of native and exotic hosts to understand the response of herbivorous guilds to urbanization. By using a plant-herbivore system composed of Asteraceae hosts and flower-head endophagous insects, we investigated whether the diversity and composition of herbivorous insects differs between native and exotic host-plant species in an urban environment. Although we found only seven exotic Asteraceae among the 30 species recorded, the overall abundance of exotics was considerably greater than that of native host plants. Overall, the exotic host species supported a small subset of the herbivore assemblage found on the native ones. The number of herbivore species per host species was significantly higher among the native plants, but we did not find a difference in herbivore abundance. Moreover, the higher taxonomic composition of herbivores on exotic Asteraceae was reduced, being composed of only three genera and two families from a total of 16 genera and six families of herbivores. These results provide support for the idea that plants outside of their original geographic distribution have lower loads of enemies than phylogenetically related native species. Our findings indicate that native host plants in urban areas play a critical role in supporting the native herbivorous insect fauna.

Keywords

Alien plants Cities Exotic species Invasive species Insect-plant interactions Phytophagous insects 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Rosane Picon, Marina Braun and Ricardo Fabiano for helping us with field work. This study was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) grants # 04/15482-1 to TML, # 03/02541-0 and # 06/56889-2 to MAN, and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) grant # 306049/2004 to TML. RDL’s research is supported by CNPq.

References

  1. Almeida AM, Fonseca CR, Prado PI, Almeida-Neto M, Diniz S, Kubota U, Braun MR, Raimundo RLG, Anjos LA, Mendonça TG, Futada SM, Lewinsohn TM (2005) Diversidade e ocorrência de Asteraceae em cerrados de São Paulo. Biota Neotrop 5:27–43. doi: 10.1590/S1676-06032005000300003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida AM, Fonseca CR, Prado PI, Almeida-Neto M, Diniz S, Kubota U, Braun MR, Raimundo RLG, Anjos LA, Mendonça TG, Futada SM, Lewinsohn TM (2006) Assemblages of endophagous insects on Asteraceae in São Paulo cerrados. Neotrop Entomol 35:458–468. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2006000400006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida-Neto M, Prado PI, Lewinsohn TM (2011) Phytophagous insect fauna tracks host plant responses to exotic grass invasion. Oecologia 165:1051–1062. doi: 10.1007/s00442-010-1783-1 Google Scholar
  4. Andow DA, Imura O (1994) Specialization of phytophagous arthropod communities on introduced plants. Ecology 75:296–300. doi: 10.2307/1939535 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batalha MA, Mantovani W (2000) Reproductive phenological patterns of cerrado plant species at the Pé-de-Gigante reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil): a comparison between the herbaceous and woody floras. Rev Bras Biol 60:129–145. doi: 10.1590/S0034-71082000000100016 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batalha MA, Martins FR (2004) Reproductive phenology of the cerrado plant community in Emas National Park (central Brazil). Aust J Bot 52:149–161. doi: 10.1071/BT03098 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blank S (2010) Resampling stats for Excel v 4.00.statistics.comGoogle Scholar
  8. Brändle M, Kühn I, Klotz S, Belle C, Brandl R (2008) Species richness of herbivores on exotic host plants increases with time since introduction of the host. Divers Distrib 14:905–912. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00511.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braun MR, Almeida-Neto M, Loyola RD, Prado AP, Lewinsohn TM (2008) New host-plant records for neotropical agromyzids (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Asteraceae flower heads. Neotrop Entomol 31:97–99. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2008000100016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carpenter D, Cappuccino N (2005) Herbivory, time since introduction and the invasiveness of exotic plants. J Ecol 93:315–321. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2005.00973.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cornell HV, Kahn DM (1989) Guild structure in the British arboreal arthropods: is it stable and predictable? J Anim Ecol 58:1003–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fenner M, Lee WG (2001) Lack of pre-dispersal seed predators in introduced Asteraceae in New Zealand. New Zeal J Ecol 25:95–99Google Scholar
  13. Fonseca CR, Prado PIK, Almeida-Neto M et al (2005) Flowerheads and their insects: food web structure along a fertility gradient of Cerrado. Ecol Entomol 30:36–46. doi: 10.1111/j.0307-6946.2005.00664.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frenzel M, Brandl R (2003) Diversity and abundance pattens of phytophagous insect communities on alien and native host plants in Brassicaceae. Ecography 26:723–730. doi: 10.1111/j.0906-7590.2003.03649.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Futuyma DJ, Mitter C (1996) Insect–plant interactions: the evolution of component communities. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 351:1361–1366. doi: 10.1098/rstb.1996.0119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gagné RJ (1994) The Gall Midges of the Neotropical Region. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  17. Gandhi KJK, Herms DA (2010) Direct and indirect effects of alien insect herbivores on ecological processes and interactions in forests of eastern North America. Biol Invasions 12:389–405. doi: 10.1007/s10530-009-9627-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gaston KJ, Reavey D, Valladares GR (1992) Intimacy and fidelity: internal and external feeding by the British microlepidoptera. Ecol Entomol 17:86–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1992.tb01044.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gotelli NJ, Colwell RK (2001) Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecol Lett 4:379–391. doi: 10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00230.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, Redman CL, Wu J, Bai X, Briggs JM (2008) Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319:756–760. doi: 10.1126/science.1150195 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Headrick DH, Goeden RD (1998) The biology of nonfrugivorous tephritid fruit flies. Annu Rev Entomol 43:217–241. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.217 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hill SB, Kotanen PM (2010) Phylogenetically structured damage to Asteraceae: susceptibility of native and exotic species to foliar herbivores. Biol Invas 12:3333–3342. doi: 10.1007/s10530-010-9726-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hooper DU, Chapin FS, Ewel JJ, Hector A, Inchausti P, Lavorel S et al (2005) Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecol Monogr 75:3–35. doi: 10.1890/04-0922 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jaenike J (1990) Host specialization in phytophagous insects. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 21:243–273. doi: 10.1146/annurev.es.21.110190.001331 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keane RM, Crawley MJ (2002) Exotic plant invasions and the enemy release hypothesis. Trends Ecol Evol 17:164–170. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02499-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lewinsohn TM (1991) Insects in flower heads of Asteraceae in Southeast Brazil: a tropical case study on species richness. In: Price PW, Lewinsohn TM, Fernandes GW, Benson WW (eds) Plant-animal interactions: evolutionary ecology in tropical and temperate regions. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 525–559Google Scholar
  27. Lewinsohn TM, Novotny V, Basset Y (2005) Insects on plants: diversity of herbivore assemblages revisited. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 36:597–620. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.091704.175520 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Louda SM, Pemberton RW, Johnson MT, Follett PA (2003) Nontarget effects-the Achilles’ heel of biological control? Retrospective analyses to reduce risk associated with biocontrol introductions. Annu Rev Entomol 48:365–396. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.48.060402.102800 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marchini LC, Moreti ACCC, Teixeira EW, Silva ECA, Rodrigues RR, Souza VC (2001) Plantas visitadas por abelhas africanizadas em duas localidades do estado de São Paulo. Sci Agricola 58:413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marques ESA, Price PW, Cobb NS (2000) Resource abundance and insect herbivore on woody fabaceous desert plants. Environ Entomol 29:696–703. doi: 10.1603/0046-225X-29.4.696 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marquis RJ (1991) Herbivore fauna of Piper (Piperaceae) in a Costa Rican wet forest: diversity, specifity, and impact. In: Price PW, Lewinsohn TM, Fernandes GW, Benson WW (eds) Plant-animal interactions: evolutionary ecology in tropical and temperate regions. Wiley/Interscience, New York, pp 179–208Google Scholar
  32. McDonnell MJ, Pickett STA (1990) Ecosystem structure and function along urban-rural gradients: an unexploited opportunity for ecology. Ecology 71:1232–1237. doi: 10.2307/1938259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McIntyre NE (2000) Ecology of urban arthropods: a review and a call to action. Ann Entomol Soc Am 93:825–835. doi: 10.1603/0013-8746(2000)093[0825:EOUAAR]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McKinney ML (2010) Effects of urbanization on species richness: a review of plants and animals. Urban Ecosyst 11:161–176. doi: 10.1007/s11252-007-0045-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Novotny V, Drozd P, Miller SE, Kulfan M, Janda M, Basset Y, Weiblen GD (2006) Why are there so many species of herbivorous insects in tropical rainforests? Science 313:1115–1118. doi: 10.1126/science.1129237 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Prado PI, Lewinsohn TM (2004) Compartments in insect-plant associations and their consequences for community structure. J Anim Ecol 73:1168–1178. doi: 10.1111/j.0021-8790.2004.00891.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Prado PI, Lewinsohn TM, Almeida AM, Norrbom AL, Buys BD, Macedo AC, Lopes MB (2002) The fauna of Tephritidae (Diptera) from capitula of Asteraceae in Brazil. Proc Entomol Soc Wash 104:1007–1028Google Scholar
  38. Pysek P (1998) Alien and native species in central European urban floras: a quantitative comparison. J Biogeogr 25:155–163. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.1998.251177.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Raupp MJ, Shrewsbury PM, Herms DA (2010) Ecology of herbivorous arthropods in urban landscapes. Ann Rev Entomol 55:19–38. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-112408-085351 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Santos AR, Rocha CFD, Bergallo HG (2010) Native and exotic species in the urban landscape of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: density, richness, and arboreal deficit. Urban Ecosyst 13:209–222. doi: 10.1007/s11252-009-0113-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Strong DR, Lawton JH, Southwood TRE (1984) Insects on plants. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  42. Tallamy DW (2004) Do aliens plants reduce insect biomass? Conserv Biol 18:1689–1692. doi: 10.1007/s10530-009-9639-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zuefle ME, Brown WP, Tallamy DW (2007) Effects of non-native plants on the native insect community of Delaware. Biol Invas 10:1159–1169. doi: 10.1007/s10530-007-9193-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zwölfer H, Romstöck-Völkl M (1991) Biotypes and evolution of niches in phytophagous insects on Carduae hosts. In: Price PW, Lewinsohn TM, Fernandes GW, Benson WW (eds) Plant-animal interactions: evolutionary ecology in tropical and temperate regions. Wiley/Interscience, New York, pp 487–507Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula Perre
    • 1
  • Rafael D. Loyola
    • 2
  • Thomas M. Lewinsohn
    • 3
  • Mário Almeida-Neto
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Depto. Entomologia e Acarologia, ESALQUniversidade de São Paulo (USP)PiracicabaBrazil
  2. 2.Depto. Ecologia, ICBUniversidade Federal de Goiás (UFG)GoiâniaBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratório de Interações Insetos-Plantas, Depto. Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMPCampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations