Urban Ecosystems

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 395–413 | Cite as

Stormwater basins of the New Jersey coastal plain: Subsidies or sinks for frogs and toads?

Article

Abstract

Stormwater basins are commonly employed structures designed to mitigate the negative effects of urban runoff. They are ubiquitous in the urbanized landscape; yet the effect of these basins on anurans has only recently been addressed. Stormwater basins have the potential to influence the breeding distribution of anurans by being sources for some species and sinks for others. Our study aims to determine which species benefit from the existence of stormwater basins, which species are negatively impacted, and what variables are the best predictors of these effects. We monitored thirty-six permanently-ponded basins in southern New Jersey for the presence of anuran larvae and calling males by aural surveys, dip-netting and trapping. We assessed fish presence by interviews, visual encounters, dip-netting, and traps. We divided near shore buffer areas into impervious surface and managed or unmanaged categories for both grass and woody vegetation. Two connectivity metrics, distance to canopied corridor and percent of undeveloped upland were analyzed with ArcGIS. Fish were detected in 92% of the basins. Resistance to fish predation distinguished successful species, those with larvae present, from unsuccessful species, those with calling activity but no larval presence. Connectivity to and availability of terrestrial habitat were significant predictors of the breeding species richness at the basins. Number of calling species increased as access to and amount of terrestrial habitat increased. Therefore, design, management, and placement of permanently-ponded basins can impact anuran communities. Additionally, as wet basins are sources for Rana catesbeiana, where bullfrogs are invasive, basins will likely increase propagule pressure.

Keywords

Stormwater Management Pond-breeding anurans Source-sink Bullfrogs Amphibian conservation 

Abbreviations

BMPs

Best Management Practices

PNR

Pinelands National Reserve

H-L

Hosmer-Lemeshow

References

  1. Adams MJ, Pearl CA, Bury RB (2003) Indirect facilitation of an anuran invasion by non-native fishes. Ecol Lett 6:343–351. doi:10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00435.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams CE, Lindsey JK, Ash SJ (2006) Urban Wildlife Management. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  3. Australia E (2002) Introduction to Stormwater Management in Australia.Google Scholar
  4. Babbitt KJ, Baber MJ, Tarr TL (2003) Patterns of larval amphibian distribution along a wetland hydroperiod gradient. Can J Zool Rev Can De Zool 81:1539–1552. doi:10.1139/z03-131 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babbitt KJ, Baber MJ, Brandt LA (2006) The effect of woodland proximity and wetland characteristics on larval anuran assemblages in an agricultural landscape. Can J Zool 84:510–519. doi:10.1139/Z06-020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Battin J (2004) When Good Animals Love Bad Habitats: Ecological Traps and the Conservation of Animal Populations. Conserv Biol 18:1482–1491. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00417.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bishop C et al (2000a) Contamination and wildlife communities in stormwater detention ponds in Guelph and the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, 1997 and 1998. Part I. Wildlife communities. Water Qual Res J Can 35:399–435Google Scholar
  8. Bishop C, Struger J, Shirose L, Dunn L, Campbell G (2000b) Contamination and wildlife communities in stormwater detention ponds in Guelph and the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, 1997 and 1998. Part II. Contamination and Biological Effects of Contamination. Water Qual Res J Can 35:399–435Google Scholar
  9. Boone MD, James SM (2003) Interactions of an insecticide, herbicide, and natural stressors in amphibian community mesocosms. Ecol Appl 13:829–841. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2003)013[0829:IOAIHA]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boone MD, Semlitsch RD, Little EE, Doyle MC (2007) Multiple stressors in amphibian communities: Effects of chemical contamination, bullfrogs, and fish. Ecol Appl 17:291–301. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2007)017[0291:MSIACE]2.0.CO;2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brand AB, Snodgrass JW (2010) Value of Artificial Habitats for Amphibian Reproduction in Altered Landscapes. Conserv Biol 24:295–301. doi:0.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01301.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brand A, Snodgrass J, Gallagher M, Casey R, Van Meter R (2010) Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Embryonic and Larval Exposure of Hyla versicolor to Stormwater Pond Sediments. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58:325–331. doi:10.1007/s00244-009-9373-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Breden F (1988) Natural history and ecology of Fowler’s toad, Bufo woodhousei fowleri (Amphibia: Bufonidae), in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Fieldiana: zoology 49Google Scholar
  14. Bunnell J, Zampella R (2008) Native Fish and Anuran Assemblages Differ between Impoundments with and without Non-Native Centrarchids and Bullfrogs. Copeia :931–939. doi: 10.1643/CE-07-089
  15. Bury BR, Whelan AJ (1984) Ecology and Management of the Bullfrog. Washington, United States Department of the InteriorGoogle Scholar
  16. Collins SJ, Russell RW (2009) Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians. Environ Pollut 157:320–324. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.06.032 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crawford JA, Semlitsch RD (2008) Post-disturbance effects of even-aged timber harvest on stream salamanders in Southern Appalachian forests. Anim Conserv 11:369–376. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2008.00191.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cushman SA (2006) Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on amphibians: A review and prospectus. Biol Conserv 128:231–240. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DayWater (2003) Review of the Use of stormwater BMPs in Europe. In: Catalogue No. 5.1Google Scholar
  20. De’ath G, Fabricius KE (2000) Classification and regression trees: A powerful yet simple technique for ecological data analysis. Ecology 81:3178–3192. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[3178:CARTAP]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eigenbrod F, Hecnar SJ, Fahrig L (2008) Accessible habitat: An improved measure of the effects of habitat loss and roads on wildlife populations. Landscape Ecol 23:159–168. doi:10.1007/s10980-007-9174-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elzanowski A, Ciesiolkiewicz J, Kaczor M, Radwanska J, Urban R (2009) Amphibian road mortality in Europe: A meta-analysis with new data from Poland. Eur J Wildl Res 55:33–43. doi:10.1007/s10344-008-0211-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ficetola FG, De Bernardi F (2004) Amphibians in a human-dominated landscape: The community structure is related to habitat features and isolation. Biol Conserv 119:219–230. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2003.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. García-Muñoz E, Guerrero F, Parra G (2009) Effects of Copper Sulfate on Growth, Development, and Escape Behavior in <i>Epidalea calamita</i> Embryos and Larvae. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:557–565. doi:10.1007/s00244-008-9201-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gardner TA, Barlow J, Peres CA (2007) Paradox, presumption and pitfalls in conservation biology: The importance of habitat change for amphibians and reptiles. Biol Conserv 138:166–179. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.04.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gibbs JP, Whiteleather KK, Schueler FW (2005) Changes in Frog and Toad Populations over 30 Years in New York State. Ecol Appl 15:1148–1157. doi:10.1890/03-5408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gray M, Smith L, Leyva R (2004) Influence of agricultural landscape structure on a Southern High Plains, USA, amphibian assemblage. Landscape Ecol 19:719–729. doi:10.1007/s10980-005-1129-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gregory JH, Dukes MD, Jones PH, Miller GL (2006) Effect of urban soil compaction on infiltration rate. J Soil Water Conserv 61:117–124Google Scholar
  29. Grubb J (1973) Olfactory orientation in Bufo woodhousei fowleri, Pseudacris clarki and Pseudacris streckeri. Anim Behav 21:726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grubb J (1975) Olfactory orientation in southern leopard frogs, Rana utricularia. Herpetologica 31:219–221Google Scholar
  31. Guerry AD, Hunter ML (2002) Amphibian distributions in a landscape of forests and agriculture: An examination of landscape composition and configuration. Conserv Biol 16:745–754. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00557.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gunzburger MS, Travis J (2005) Critical Literature Review of the Evidence for Unpalatability of Amphibian Eggs and Larvae. J Herpetol 39:547–571. doi:10.1670/1-05A.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hamer AJ, McDonnell MJ (2008) Amphibian ecology and conservation in the urbanising world: A review. Biol Conserv 141:2432–2449. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.07.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hamer A, Lane S, Mahony M (2002) The role of introduced mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) in excluding the native green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) from original habitats in south-eastern Australia. Oecologia 132:445–452. doi:10.1007/s00442-002-0968-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harper EB, Rittenhouse TAG, Semlitsch RD (2008) Demographic Consequences of Terrestrial Habitat Loss for Pool-Breeding Amphibians: Predicting Extinction Risks Associated with Inadequate Size of Buffer Zones. Conserv Biol 22:1205–1215. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01015.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hecnar SJ, M’Closkey RT (1998) Species Richness Patterns of Amphibians in Southwestern Ontario Ponds. J Biogeogr 25:763–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hels T, Buchwald E (2001) The effect of road kills on amphibian populations. Biol Conserv 99:331–340. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00215-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Homan RN, Windmiller BS, Reed JM (2004) Critical Thresholds Associated with Habitat Loss for Two Vernal Pool-Breeding Amphibians. Ecol Appl 14:1547–1553. doi:10.1890/03-5125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hulse HC, McCoy CJ, Censky EJ (2001) Amphibians and Reptiles of Pennsylvania and the Northeast Ithaca. Cornell University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Jameson D (1956) Survival of some central Texas frogs under natural conditions. Copeia :55–57Google Scholar
  41. Johnson JR, Semlitsch RD (2003) Defining core habitat of local populations of the gray treefrog ( Hyla versicolor) based on choice of oviposition site. Oecologia 137:205–210. doi:10.1007/s00442-003-1339-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kats LB, Petranka JW, Sih A (1988) Antipredator Defenses and the Persistence of Amphibian Larvae With Fishes. Ecology 69:1865–1870. doi:10.2307/1941163 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Klemens M (1993) Amphibians and reptiles of Connecticut and adjacent regions: State Geological and Natural History Survey of ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  44. Knutson MG, Sauer JR, Olsen DA, Mossman MJ, Hemesath LM, Lannoo MJ (1999) Effects of Landscape Composition and Wetland Fragmentation on Frog and Toad Abundance and Species Richness in Iowa and Wisconsin, U.S.A. Conserv Biol 13:1437–1446. doi:0.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98445.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kurzava LM, Morin PJ (1998) Tests of Functional Equivalence: Complementary Roles of Salamanders and Fish in Community Organization. Ecology 79:477–489. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[0477:TOFECR]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lawler SP, Dritz D, Strange T, Holyoak M (1999) Effects of introduced mosquitofish and bullfrogs on the threatened California red-legged frog. Conserv Biol 13:613–622. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98075.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mazerolle MJ (2004) Amphibian road mortality in response to nightly variations in traffic intensity. Herpetologica 60:45–53. doi:10.1655/02-109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McKinney ML (2002) Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. Bioscience 52:883–890. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0883:UBAC]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MDE (2000) Maryland Stormwater Design Manual. Maryland Department of the Environment, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  50. Meyers LS, Gamst G, Guarino AJ (2006) Applied Multivariate Research: Design and Interpretation, 2nd edn. SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  51. NJDEP (2004a) NJPDES, Rules (N.J.A.C. 7:14A)Google Scholar
  52. NJDEP (2004b) Stormwater Management Rule: N.J.A.C. 7:8Google Scholar
  53. NJDEP (2004c) updated 2009 New Jersey Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual. Trenton, NJGoogle Scholar
  54. Ostergaard E (2001) Pond-breeding amphibian use of stormwater ponds in King County. In: Washington. MS. University of Washington, Seattle, WAGoogle Scholar
  55. Parris KM (2006) Urban amphibian assemblages as metacommunities. J Anim Ecol 75:757–764. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2006.01096.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pillsbury FC, Miller JR (2008) Habitat and landscape characteristics underlying anuran community structure along an urban-rural gradient. Ecol Appl 18:1107–1118. doi:0.1890/07-1899.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pope KL, Garwood JM, Welsh HH, Lawler SP (2008) Evidence of indirect impacts of introduced trout on native amphibians via facilitation of a shared predator. Biol Conserv 141:1321–1331. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Price SJ, Marks DR, Howe RW, Hanowski JM, Niemi GJ (2005) The importance of spatial scale for conservation and assessment of anuran populations in coastal wetlands of the western Great Lakes, USA. Landscape Ecol 20:441–454. doi:10.1007/s10980-004-3167-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pulliam HR, Danielson BJ (1991) Sources, Sinks, and Habitat Selection: A Landscape Perspective on Population Dynamics. Am Nat 137:S50–S66. doi:10.1086/285139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ray N, Lehmann A, Joly P (2002) Modeling spatial distribution of amphibian populations: A GIS approach based on habitat matrix permeability. Biodivers Conserv 11:2143–2165. doi:10.1023/A:1021390527698 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Relyea RA, Mills N (2001) Predator-Induced Stress Makes the Pesticide Carbaryl More Deadly to Gray Treefrog Tadpoles (Hyla versicolor). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:2491–2496. doi:10.1073/pnas.031076198 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rittenhouse TAG, Semlitsch RD (2007) Distribution of amphibians in terrestrial habitat surrounding wetlands. Wetlands 27:153–161. doi:10.1672/0277-5212(2007)27[153:DOAITH]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rubbo MJ, Kiesecker JM (2005) Amphibian breeding distribution in an urbanized landscape. Conserv Biol 19:504–511. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.000101.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sanzo D, Hecnar SJ (2006) Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Environ Pollut 140:247–256. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.07.013 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Savage RM (1961) The Ecology and Life History of the Common Frog (Rana temporaria, temporaria). Pitman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. Schér O, Thiery A (2005) Odonata, amphibia and environmental characteristics in motorway stormwater retention ponds (Southern France). Hydrobiologia 551:237–251. doi:10.1007/s10750-005-4464-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Semlitsch RD (2008) Differentiating Migration and Dispersal Processes for Pond-Breeding Amphibians. J Wildl Manage 72:260–267. doi:10.2193/2007-082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Semlitsch RD, Bodie JR (2003) Biological criteria for buffer zones around wetlands and riparian habitats for amphibians and reptiles. Conserv Biol 17:1219–1228. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.02177.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Semlitsch R, Scott D, Pechmann J, Gibbons J (1996) Structure and dynamics of an amphibian community: Evidence from a 16-year study of a natural pond. In: Long-term studies of vertebrate communities. Academic, San Diego, pp 217–248Google Scholar
  70. Simon JA, Snodgrass JW, Casey RE, Sparling DW (2009) Spatial correlates of amphibian use of constructed wetlands in an urban landscape. Landscape Ecol 24:361–373. doi:10.1007/s10980-008-9311-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Skelly DK (1995) A Behavioral Trade-Off and Its Consequences for the Distribution of Pseudacris Treefrog Larvae. Ecology 76:150–164. doi:10.2307/1940638 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Skelly DK (1996) Pond drying, predators, and the distribution of Pseudacris tadpoles. Copeia:599–605Google Scholar
  73. Smith MA, Green DM (2005) Dispersal and the metapopulation paradigm in amphibian ecology and conservation: Are all amphibian populations metapopulations? Ecography 28:110–128. doi:10.1111/j.0906-7590.2005.04042.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smith MA, Green DM (2006) Sex, isolation and fidelity: Unbiased long-distance dispersal in a terrestrial amphibian. Ecography 29:649–658. doi:10.1111/j.2006.0906-7590.04584.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Snodgrass JW, Casey RE, Joseph D, Simon JA (2008) Microcosm investigations of stormwater pond sediment toxicity to embryonic and larval amphibians: Variation in sensitivity among species. Environ Pollut 154:291–297. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2007.10.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stebbins R, Cohen N (1997) A natural history of amphibians: Princeton Univ PrGoogle Scholar
  77. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2001) Using multivariate statistics Needham Heights. Allyn and Bacon, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  78. Trenham PC, Shaffer HB (2005) Amphibian Upland Habitat Use and Its Consequences for Population Viability. Ecol Appl 15:1158–1168. doi:10.1890/04-1150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Trenham PC, Koenig WD, Mossman MJ, Stark SL, Jagger LA (2003) Regional Dynamics of Wetland-Breeding Frogs and Toads: Turnover and Synchrony. Ecol Appl 13:1522–1532. doi:10.1890/02-5206 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. USEPA (2000) revised 2005 Stormwater Phase II Final Rule, An Overview. In: Catalogue No. EPA 833-F-00-001Google Scholar
  81. Van Buskirk J (2003) Habitat partitioning in European and North American pond-breeding frogs and toads. Divers Distrib 9:399–410. doi:10.1046/j.1472-4642.2003.00038.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Van Buskirk J (2005) Local and Landscape Influence on Amphibian Occurrence and Abundance. Ecology 86:1936–1947. doi:10.1890/04-1237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Welborn GA, Skelly DK, Werner EE (1996) Mechanisms Creating Community Structure Across a Freshwater Habitat Gradient. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 27:337–363. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.337 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Werner EE, McPeek MA (1994) Direct and Indirect Effects of Predators on Two Anuran Species along an Environmental Gradient. Ecology 75:1368–1382. doi:10.2307/1937461 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Werner EE, Skelly DK, Relyea RA, Yurewicz KL (2007a) Amphibian species richness across environmental gradients. Oikos 116:1697–1712. doi:10.1111/j.2007.0030-1299.15935.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Werner EE, Yurewicz KL, Skelly DK, Relyea RA (2007b) Turnover in an amphibian metacommunity: The role of local and regional factors. Oikos 116:1713–1725. doi:10.1111/j.0030-1299.2007.16039.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Willis Y, Moyle D, Baskett T (1956) Emergence, breeding, hibernation, movements and transformation of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in Missouri. Copeia:30–41Google Scholar
  88. Woods-Ballard B, Kellagher R, Martin P, Jefferies C, Bray R, Shaffer P (2007) The SUDS Manual. CIRIA, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. Zampella RA, Bunnell JF, Laidig KJ, Procopio NA (2006) Using multiple indicators to evaluate the ecological integrity of a coastal plain stream system. Ecol Indic 6:644–663. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.08.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology, Evolution, & Natural ResourcesRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations