Advertisement

Instructional Science

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 1–23 | Cite as

Learning and knowing songs: a study of children as music teachers

  • Tina KullenbergEmail author
  • Niklas Pramling
Article

Abstract

In this study we analyze how learners constitute what it means to learn and know a song. This is investigated in the context of four 9- to 10-year-old children in dyads teaching each other to sing a song of their own choosing. How the children take on this task is studied in terms of how they dialogically co-construct pedagogical and musical values throughout the collaborative tasks. The empirical data consist of video observations of the children engaged in dyads. Informed by a sociocultural perspective, with an emphasis on mediational means, scaffolding and appropriation, the study seeks to examine how young people’s instructional methods are facilitated and constrained by communicative resources of different kinds. The empirical data is analyzed as interactively unfolding activity. The study shows that the children make a distinction between learning and knowing a song, in terms of tool use. In teaching, learning is communicated as supported by mediational means in the form of external visualization tools, while knowing the song, from the participants’ point of view means to be able to sing the song without any such mediational means. From a sociocultural theoretical perspective, this difference is conceptualized as the gradual learning process of moving from a materialized practice, based on external artifacts, to an embodied practice, that is, a change in mediational means rather than developing musical knowing without tools.

Keywords

Instruction Teaching Learning Singing Children Sociocultural perspective 

References

  1. Alexander, R. (2008). Towards dialogic teaching: rethinking classroom talk (4th ed.). Cambridge: Dialogos.Google Scholar
  2. Bakhtin, M. M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bakhtin, M. M. (1991). The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M.M. Bakhtin (C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Trans.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baynham, M. (1995). Literacy practices: Investigating literacy in social contexts. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  5. Brand, E. (2003). Children’s beliefs about learning: Structures and strategies. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 157, 9–17.Google Scholar
  6. Bruner, J. S. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Burnard, P. (2012). Musical creativities in practice. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cazden, C. B., & Beck, S. W. (2003). Classroom discourse. In S. R. Goldman (Ed.), Handbook of discourse processes (pp. 165–197). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Ferm Thorgersen, C. (2009). Ömsesidig nyfikenhet och respekt: En fenomenologisk didaktik med utgångspunkt för musikundervisning i grundskolans lägre åldrar [Mutual curiosity and respect: Phenomenological music teaching and learning in primary schools]. Nordisk musikkpedagogisk forskning: Årbok 11 (pp. 167–184). Oslo: Norges musikkhögskole.Google Scholar
  10. Gee, J. P., & Green, J. L. (1998). Discourse analysis, learning, and social practice: A methodological study. Review of Research in Education, 23, 119–169.Google Scholar
  11. James, A., Jenks, C., & Prout, A. (1998). Theorizing childhood. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  12. John-Steiner, V., & Mahn, H. (1996). Sociocultural approaches to learning and development: A Vygotskian framework. Educational Psychologist, 31(3/4), 191–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kress, G., Jewitt, C., Ogborn, J., & Tsatsarelis, C. (2001). Multimodal teaching and learning: The rhetorics of the science classroom. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  14. Kullenberg, T. (2014). Signing and singing: Children in teaching dialogues. Diss. Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet.Google Scholar
  15. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Leach, J., & Scott, P. (2003). Individual and sociocultural views of learning in science education. Science & Education, 12, 91–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lefstein, A., & Snell, J. (2014). Better than best practice: Developing teaching and learning through dialogue. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Lemke, J. (1990). Talking science: Language, learning and values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  19. Lemke, J. (2001). Articulating communities: Sociocultural perspectives on science education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(3), 296–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Levrini, O., Fantini, P., Tasquier, G., Pecori, B., & Levin, M. (2015). Defining and operationalizing appropriation for science learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 24, 93–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lindwall, O., & Lymer, G. (2008). The dark matter of lab work: Illuminating the negotiation of disciplined perception in mechanics. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 17(2), 180–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Linell, P. (1998). Approaching dialogoue: Talk, interaction and contexts in dialogical perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Linell, P. (2009). Rethinking language, mind and world dialogically: Interactional and contextual theories of human sense-making. Charlotte, NC: Information Age.Google Scholar
  24. Linell, P. (2014). A dialogical notebook: Afterthoughts after Rethinking. Gothenburg: Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg. (e-publication: http://www.ipkl.gu.se/digitalAssets).
  25. Lyle, S. (2008). Dialogic teaching: Discussing theoretical contexts and reviewing evidence from classroom practice. Language and Education, 22(3), 222–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Matusov, E. (1996). Intersubjectivity without agreement. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 3(1), 25–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Matusov, E. (2007). Applying Bakhtin scholarship on discourse in education: A critical review essay. Educational Theory, 57(2), 215–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matusov, E. (2009). Journey into dialogic pedagogy. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  29. Matusov, E. (2011). Irreconcilable differences in Vygotsky’s and Bakhtin’s approaches to the social and the individual: An educational perspective. Culture & Psychology, 17(1), 99–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Matusov, E. (in press). Comprehension: A dialogic authorial approach, Culture & Psychology. Google Scholar
  31. Matusov, E., & Hayes, R. (2005). Designing for dialogue in place of teacher talk and student silence. Culture & Psychology, 11(3), 339–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Matusov, E., & Lemke, J. (2015). Values in dialogic pedagogy. Dialogic Pedagogy: An International Online Journal, 3, 1–20.Google Scholar
  33. Matusov, E., & Marjanovic-Shane, A. (2012). Diverse approaches to education: Alienated learning, closed and open participatory socialization, and critical dialogue. Human Development, 55(3), 159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Matusov, E., & Miyazaki, K. (2014). Dialogue on dialogic pedagogy. Dialogic Pedagogy: An International Online Journal, 2, 2–47.Google Scholar
  35. Matusov, E., von Dyuke, K., & Han, S. (2013). Community of learners: Ontological and non-ontological projects. Outlines: Critical Practice Studies, 14(1), 41–72.Google Scholar
  36. McPherson, G. E., Davidson, J. W., & Faulkner, R. (2012). Music in our lives: Rethinking musical ability, development and identity. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mehan, H. (1979). Learning lessons: Social organization in the classroom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Miller, R. (2011). Vygotsky in perspective. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mizener, C. P. (2008). Our singing children developing singing accuracy. General Music Today, 21(3), 18–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nerland, M. (2007). One-to-one teaching as cultural practice: Two case studies from an academy of music. Music Education Research, 9(3), 399–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Polman, J. L. (2006). Mastery and appropriation as means to understand the interplay of history learning and identity trajectories. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15, 221–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pramling, I. (1983). The child’s conception of learning (Göteborg Studies in Educational Sciences, 46). Göteborg, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.Google Scholar
  43. Pramling, N. (2006). Minding metaphors: Using figurative language in learning to represent (Göteborg Studies in Educational Sciences, 238). Gothenburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.Google Scholar
  44. Pramling Samuelsson, I., & Pramling, N. (2009). Children’s perspectives as ‘touch downs’ in time: Assessing and developing children’s understanding simultaneously. Early Child Development and Care, 179(2), 205–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pramling, N., & Wallerstedt, C. (2009). Making musical sense: The multi-modal nature of clarifying musical listening. Music Education Research, 11, 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rogoff, B., & Lave, J. (Eds.). (1984). Everyday cognition: Its development in social context. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Rosebery, A. S., Warren, B., & Conant, F. R. (1992). Appropriating scientific discourse: Findings from language minority classrooms. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2(1), 61–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Säljö, R. (2000). Lärande i praktiken: Ett sociokulturellt perspektiv [Learning in practice: A sociocultural perspective]. Stockholm: Prisma.Google Scholar
  49. Säljö, R. (2005). Lärande och kulturella redskap: Om lärprocesser och det kollektiva minnet [Learning and cultural tools: On processes of learning and collective memory]. Stockholm: Norstedts Akademiska.Google Scholar
  50. Säljö, R. (2011). Kontext och mänskliga samspel: Ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande [Context and interaction: A sociocultural perspective on learning]. Utbildning & Demokrati, 20(3), 67–82.Google Scholar
  51. Scribner, S. (1997). Mind and social practice: Selected writings of Sylvia Scribner. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Sommer, D., Pramling Samuelsson, I., & Hundeide, K. (2010). Child perspective and children's perspectives in theory and practice. Dordrecht/Heidelberg/London/New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  53. Sullivan Palinscar, A. (1986). The role of dialogue in providing scaffolding instruction. Educational Psychologist, 21(1/2), 73–98.Google Scholar
  54. Sullivan, P., Smith, M., & Matusov, E. (2009). Bakhtin, Socrates and the carnivalesque in education. New Ideas in Psychology, 27, 326–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sun, J., & Rao, N. (2012). Scaffolding preschool children’s problem solving: A comparison between Chinese mothers and teachers across multiple tasks. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 10(3), 246–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sundin, B. (1978). Barns musikaliska utveckling [Children’s musical development]. Lund, Sweden: Liber.Google Scholar
  57. Tabak, I., & Baumgartner, E. (2004). The teacher as partner: Exploring participant structures, symmetry and identity work in scaffolding. Cognition and Instruction, 22(4), 393–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vass, E., Littleton, K., Miell, D., & Jones, A. (2008). The discourse of collaborative creative writing: Peer collaboration as a context for mutual inspiration. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 3(3), 192–202.Google Scholar
  59. Vygotsky, L. (1925/1971). Psychology of art. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original work published 1925).Google Scholar
  60. Wallerstedt, C. (2013). ‘Here comes the sausage’: An empirical study of children’s verbal communication during a collaborative music- making activity. Music Education Research, 15(4), 421–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wallerstedt, C., Pramling, N., & Säljö, R. (2014). Learning to discern and account: The trajectory of a listening skill in an institutional setting. Psychology of Music, 42(3), 366–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wallerstedt, C., Pramling, N., & Säljö, R. (2015). Micro-Genetic development of timing in a child. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 22(3), 251–268.Google Scholar
  63. Wegerif, R. (2011). Towards a dialogic theory of how children learn to think. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 6, 179–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wells, C. G. (1992, September). Re-evaluation of the IRF-sequence: A proposal for the articulation of theories of activity and discourse for the analysis of teaching and learning in the classroom. Paper presented at the Conference for Sociocultural Research, Madrid, Spain.Google Scholar
  65. Wells, G. (2007). Semiotic mediation, dialogue and the construction of knowledge. Human Development, 50, 244–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wells, G., & Arauz, R. M. (2006). Dialogue in the classroom. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(3), 379–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wertsch, J. V. (1990). Dialogue and dialogism in a socio-cultural approach to mind. In I. Marková & K, Foppa (Eds.), The dynamics of dialogue (pp. 62–82). New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  68. Wertsch, J. V. (1998). Mind as action. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  69. White, E. J. (2014a). Bakhtinian Dialogic and Vygotskian dialectic: Compatabilities and contradictions in the classroom? Educational Philosophy and Theory, 46(3), 220–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. White, E. J. (2014b). Concluding commentary: Response to Eugene and Kiyo. Dialogic Pedagogy: An International Online Journal, 2, 64–71.Google Scholar
  71. Wood, D., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19(2), 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Young, S. (2009). Music 3-5. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Education and EnvironmentKristianstad UniversityKristianstadSweden
  2. 2.Department of Education, Communication and LearningUniversity of GothenburgGöteborgSweden

Personalised recommendations