Instructional Science

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 229–250

Relative effects of three questioning strategies in ill-structured, small group problem solving

Original Research
  • 757 Downloads

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to investigate the relative effectiveness of using three different question-prompt strategies on promoting metacognitive skills and performance in ill-structured problem solving by examining the interplay between peer interaction and cognitive scaffolding. An ill-structured problem-solving task was given to three groups. One group (Type QP) received instructor-generated question prompts that guided the problem-solving process; the second group (Type PQ) developed their own peer-generated questions; another group (Type PQ-R) developed their own question prompts first and revised them later with an instructor-generated question list. In this study, students in the QP group outperformed those in any other groups. The results revealed that providing instructor-generated question prompts was more effective than letting students develop their own questions, with or without revision, in ill-structured problem solving. Analysis of each of the four problem-solving stages revealed that the provided question prompts were more helpful in the stages of justification, and monitoring and evaluating than student-generated prompts. The difference between PQ and PQ-R groups is not statistically significant either overall or in any of the problem-solving stages.

Keywords

Ill-structured problem solving Scaffolding Question prompt Peer-generated question Peer interaction in small groups 

References

  1. Ball, D. L. (1993). Halves, pieces, and twoths: Constructing representational contexts in teaching fractions. In T. Carpenter, E. Fennema, & T. Romberg (Eds.), Rational numbers: An integration of research (pp. 157–196). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Byun, H. J., & Hong, Y. I. (2006). Formative research on scaffolding with question prompts in ill-structured collaborative problem solving. Paper presented at the 2006 International Conference for Media in Education.Google Scholar
  3. Chin, C. (2002). Student-generated questions: Encouraging inquisitive minds in learning science. Teaching and Learning, 23(1), 59–67.Google Scholar
  4. Choi, I., Land, S., & Turgeon, A. (2005). Scaffolding peer-questioning strategies to facilitate metacognition during online small group discussion. Instructional Science, 33, 367–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cobb, P., Yackel, E., & Wood, T. (1992). A constructivist alternative to the representational view of mind in mathematics education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 23, 2–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, E. G. (1994). Restructuring the classroom: Conditions for productive small groups. Review of Educational Research, 64(1), 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dennen, V. P. (2004). Cognitive apprenticeship in educational practice: research on scaffolding, Modeling, mentoring, and coaching, as instructional strategies. In D. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research on educational communication and technology. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations, Publishers.Google Scholar
  9. Dori, Y. J., & Herscovitz, O. (1999). Question-posing capability as an alternative evaluation method: Analysis of an environmental case study. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(4), 411–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gall, M., Borg, W., & Gall, J. (1996). Educational research: An introduction (6th ed.). New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  11. Ge, X., Chen, C. H., & Davis, K. A. (2005). Scaffolding novice instructional designers’ problem-solving processes using question prompts in a web-based learning environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 33(2), 219–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ge, X., & Land, S. (2003). Scaffolding students’ problem-solving processes in an ill-structured task using question prompts and peer interactions. Educational Technology Research and Development, 51(1), 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ge, X., & Land, S. (2004). A conceptual framework for scaffolding ill-structured problem-solving process using question prompts and peer interactions. Educational Technology Research and Development, 52(2), 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Graesser, A. C., & Olde, B. A. (2003). How does one know whether a person understands a device? The quality of the questions the person asks when the device breaks down. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(3), 524–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Green, B. A., & Land, S. M. (2000). A Qualitative analysis of scaffolding use in a resource-based learning environment involving the world wide web. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 23(2), 151–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. (1989). Cooperation and helping in the classroom: A contextual approach. International Journal of Educational Research, 13, 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jonassen, D. H. (1997). Instructional design models for well-structured and ill-structured problem-solving learning outcomes. Educational Technology Research and Development, 45(1), 65–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. King, A. (1991). Effects of training in strategic questioning on children’s problem-solving performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 307–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. King, A. (1992). Facilitating elaborative learning through guided student-generated questioning. Educational Psychologist, 27(1), 111–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. King, A. (2002). Structuring peer interaction to promote high-level cognitive processing. Theory Into Practice, 41(1), 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kitchener, K. S., & King, P. M. (1981). Reflective judgment: Concepts of justification and their relationship to age and education. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2, 89–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kramarski, B. (2004). Enhancing mathematical literacy with the use of metacognitive guidance in forum discussion. Proceedings of the 28th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 3. 169–176.Google Scholar
  23. Lin, X. (2001). Designing metacognitive activities. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(2), 23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lin, X., & Lehman, J. D. (1999). Supporting learning of variable control in a computer-based bioloty environment: Effects of promoting college students to reflect on their own thinking. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(7), 837–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mergendoller, J. R., Maxwell, N. L., & Bellisimo, Y. (2000). Comparing problem-based learning and traditional instruction in high school economics. Journal of Educational Research, 93(6), 374–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Osborne, R. J., & Wittrock, M. (1985). The generative learning model and its implications for science education. Studies in Science Education, 12, 59–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Palincsar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 2, 117–175.Google Scholar
  28. Pizzini, E. L., & Shepardson, D. P. (1991). Student questioning in the presence of the teacher during problem solving in science. School Science and Mathematics, 91(8), 348–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pressley, M., McDaniel, M. A., Turnure, J. E., Wood, E., & Ahmad, M. (1987). Generation and precision of elaboration: Effects on international and incidental learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 13(2), 291–300.Google Scholar
  30. Rosenshine, B., Meister, C., & Chapman, S. (1996). Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the invention studies. Review of Educational Research Journal, 66(2), 181–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ross, J. (1988). Improving social-environmental studies problem solving through cooperative learning. American Educational Research Journal, 25, 573–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Salomon, G., & Globerson, T. (1989). When teams do not function the way they ought to. International Journal of Educational Research, 13, 89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Salomon, G., Globerson, T., & Guterman, E. (1989). The computer as a zone of proximal development: Internalizing reading-related metacognitions from a reading partner. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(4), 620–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1985). Fostering the development of self-regulation in children’s knowledge processing. In S. F. Chipman, J. W. Segal, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills: Research and open questions (Vol. 2, pp. 563–577). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  35. Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1991). Higher levels of agency for children in knowledge-building: A challenge for the design of new knowledge media. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 1(1), 37–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Technology, 19, 460–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sinnott, J. D. (1989). A model for solution of ill-structured problems: Implications for everyday and abstract problem solving. In J. D. Sinnott (Ed.), Everyday problem solving: Theory and application (pp. 72–99). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  38. Sternberg, R. J. (2006). Cognitive psychology (3rd ed.). Asia: Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
  39. Vedder, P. (1985). Cooperative learning: A study on processes and effects of cooperation between primary school children. Groningen: University of Groningen.Google Scholar
  40. Voss, J. F. (1987). Learning and transfer in subject matter learning: a problem solving model. International Journal of Educational Research, 11(6), 602–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Voss, J. F., & Post, T. A. (1988). On the solving of ill-structured problems. In M. H. Chi, R. Glaser, & M. J. Farr (Eds.), The nature of expertise (pp. 261–285). Hilsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  42. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological process. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Webb, N., Ender, P., & Lewis, S. (1986). Problem-solving strategies and group processes in small groups learning in computer programming. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Webb, N. M., & Farivar, S. (1999). Developing productive group interaction in middle school mathematics. In A. M. O’Donnell & A. King (Eds.), Cognitive perspectives on peer learning (pp. 117–150). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Wineberg, S. S. (1998). Reading Abraham Lincoln: An expert–expert study in the interpretation of historical texts. Cognitive Science, 22, 319–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wittrock, M. C. (1989). Generative Processes of Comprehension. Educational Psychologist, 24(4), 345–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wood, E., Pressley, M., & Winne, P. H. (1990). Elaborative Interrogation Effects on Children’s Learning of Factual Content. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 741–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Xie, K., & Bradshaw, A. C. (2008). Using question prompts to support ill-structured problem solving in online peer collaborations. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 4(2), 148–165.Google Scholar
  49. Zellermayer, M., Salomon, G., Globerson, T., & Givon, H. (1991). Enhancing writing-related metacognitions through a computerized writing partner. American Educational Research Journal, 28(2), 373–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zoller, U. (1987). The fostering of question-asking capability: A meaningful aspect of problem-solving in chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 64, 510–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Seoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Richard Stockton College of NJGallowayUSA

Personalised recommendations