Advertisement

Instructional Science

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 1–21 | Cite as

Exploring teachers’ perceived self efficacy and technological pedagogical content knowledge with respect to educational use of the World Wide Web

  • Min-Hsien Lee
  • Chin-Chung TsaiEmail author
Article

Abstract

Research in the area of educational technology has claimed that Web technology has driven online pedagogy such that teachers need to know how to use Web technology to assist their teaching. This study provides a framework for understanding teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Web (TPCK-W), while integrating Web technology into their pedagogical practice. Furthermore, contemporary educational researchers have highlighted the significance of teachers’ self-efficacy, conceptualized as the teachers’ perceptions of their own competence at teaching, and related to instructional strategies as well as teaching effectiveness. The major purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ perceived self-efficacy in terms of their TPCK-W. This study aimed to develop a new questionnaire, namely the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Web (TPCK-W) Survey to explore teachers’ self-efficacy in terms of their TPCK-W, and additionally to assess their attitudes toward Web-based instruction. The participants in this study were 558 teachers from elementary school to high school level in Taiwan. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the TPCK-W survey developed in this study has satisfactory validity and reliability characteristics. The results indicate a lack of general knowledge about Web-related pedagogy amongst the teachers surveyed. The correlations between teachers’ self-efficacy in terms of their TPCK-W, their attitudes regarding Web-based instruction, and their background variables were also examined. Correlations were found between self-efficacy and positive attitudes to web-based instruction. Older and more experienced teachers were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy with respect to TPCK-W, though teachers with more experience of using the web (including for instruction) had higher levels of self-efficacy with respect to TPCK-W.

Keywords

Self-efficacy Technological pedagogical content knowledge Teacher Web teaching Questionnaire 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The funding of this research project is supported by National Science Council, Taiwan, under grant numbers NSC 96-2511-S-011-002-MY3, NSC 97-2511-S-011-003-MY3 and NSC 97-2631-S-011-001.

References

  1. AAAS. (1989). Science for all Americans. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. AAAS. (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. AAAS. (1998). Blueprints for reform. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67, 1206–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrbera, E. (2004). Quality in virtual education environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 35, 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bentler, P. M. (1995). EQS: Structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software, Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Black, J. B., & McClintock, R. O. (1996). An interpretation construction approach to constructivist design. In B. Wilson (Ed.), Constructivist learning environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Chou, C., & Tsai, C. -C. (2002). Developing web-based curricula: Issues and challenges. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 34, 623–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chou, C. (2003). Incidences and correlates of internet anxiety among high school teachers in Taiwan. Computers in Human Behavior, 19, 731–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chuang, S. -C., & Tsai, C. -C. (2005). Preferences toward the constructivist internet-based learning environments among high school students in Taiwan. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 255–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cornell, R. (1999). Web-based courseware tools: Where is the pedagogy? Educational Technology, 39, 60–64.Google Scholar
  14. Dawes, L. (1999). First connections: Teachers and the national grid for learning. Computers & Education, 33, 235–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ferdig, R. E. (2006). Assessing technologies for teaching and learning: Understanding the importance of technological pedagogical content knowledge. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 749–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fish, M. C., & Dane, E. (2000). The classroom systems observation scale: Development of an instrument to assess classrooms using a systems perspective. Learning Environments Research, 3, 67–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goodyear, P., Salmon, G., Spector, J. M., Steeples, C., & Tickner, S. (2001). Competencies for online teaching: A special report. ETR&D-Educational Technology Research and Development, 49, 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guskey, T. R., & Passaro, P. D. (1994). Teacher efficacy: A study of construct dimensions. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 627–643.Google Scholar
  19. Jain, C., & Getis, A. (2003). The effectiveness of internet-based instruction: An experiment in physical geography. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 27, 153–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jonassen, D. H., Peck, K. L., & Wilson, B. G. (1999). Learning with technology: A constructivist perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.Google Scholar
  21. Joo, Y. J., Bong, M., & Choi, H. J. (2000). Self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, academic self-efficacy, and internet self-efficacy in web-based instruction. ETR&D-Educational Technology Research and Development, 48, 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1989). LISREL 8: User’s reference guide (2nd ed.). Lincolnwood, IL: SSI.Google Scholar
  23. Kelloway, E. K. (1998). Using LISREL for structural equation modeling: A researcher’s guide. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32, 131–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., & Yahya, K. (2007). Tracing the development of teacher knowledge in a design seminar: Integration content, pedagogy and technology. Computers & Education, 49, 740–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee, M. -H., & Tsai, C. -C. (2005). Exploring high school students’ and teachers’ preferences toward the constructivist internet-based learning environments in Taiwan. Educational Studies, 31, 149–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Levin, T., & Gordon, C. (1989). Effect of gender and computer experience on attitudes toward computers. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 5, 69–88.Google Scholar
  28. Liaw, S. -S. (2002). An internet survey for perceptions of computers and the World Wide Web: Relationship, prediction, and difference. Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 17–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mendler, J., Simon, D., & Broome, P. (2002). Virtual development and virtual geographies: Using the internet to teach interactive distance courses in the global south. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 26, 313–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miller, S. M., & Miller, K. L. (2000). Theoretical and practical considerations in the design of web-based instruction. In B. Abbey (Ed.), Instructional and cognitive impacts of web-based instruction (pp. 156–177). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108, 1017–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. (1997). Technology and new professional teacher: Preparing for the 21st century classroom. Washington, DC: National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. Retrieved April 17, 2007, from http://www.ncate.org/public/technology21.asp?ch=113.
  33. National Science Teachers Association. (1998). Standards for science teacher preparation. Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association. Retrieved April 17, 2007, from http://www.nsta.org/main/pdfs/nsta98standards.pdf.
  34. Neo, M. (2003). Developing a collaborative learning environment using a web-based design. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19, 462–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Niess, M. L. (2005). Preparing teachers to teach science and mathematics with technology: Developing a technology pedagogical content knowledge. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 509–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Peng, H., Tsai, C. -C., & Wu, Y. -T. (2006). University students’ self-efficacy and their attitudes toward the internet: The role of students’ perceptions of the internet. Educational Studies, 32, 73–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Presno, C. (1998). Taking the byte out of Internet anxiety: Instructional techniques that reduce computer/internet anxiety in the classroom. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 18, 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Prieto, L. R., & Altmaier, E. M. (1994). The relationships of prior training and previous teaching experience to self-efficacy among graduate teaching assistants. Research in Higher Education, 35, 481–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pyle, R. C., & Dziuban, C. D. (2001). Technology: Servant or master of the online teacher? Library Trends, 50, 130–144.Google Scholar
  40. Relan, A., & Gillani, B. B. (1997). Web-based instruction and the traditional classroom: Similarities and differences. In B. H. Khan (Ed.), Web-based Instruction (pp. 41–46). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.Google Scholar
  41. Roberts, G. (2003). Teaching using the web: Conceptions and approaches from a phenomenographic perspective. Instructional Science, 31, 127–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Savolainen, R. (2002). Network competence and information seeking on the internet-from definitions towards a social cognitive model. Journal of Documentation, 58, 211–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14.Google Scholar
  44. Slotta, J. D. (2004). The web-based inquiry science environment (WISE) scaffolding knowledge integration in the science classroom. In M. C. Linn, E. A. Davis & P. Bell (Eds.), Internet environments for science education (pp. 203–232). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  45. Smith, B., Caputi, P., & Rawstorne, P. (2000). Differentiating computer experience and attitudes toward computers: An empirical investigation. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 59–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sörbom, D., & Jöreskog, K. G. (1982). The use of structural equation models in evaluation research. In C. Fornell (Ed.), A second generation of multivariate analysis: Vol 2. Measurement and evaluation (pp. 381–418). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  47. Tsai, C. -C. (2001). The interpretation construction design model for teaching science and its applications to internet-based instruction in Taiwan. International Journal of Educational Development, 21, 401–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tsai, C. -C. (2004). Adolescents’ perceptions toward the internet: 4-T framework. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 458–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tsai, C. -C., Lin, S. S. J., & Tsai, M. -J. (2001). Developing an internet attitude scale for high school students. Computers & Education, 37, 41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tsai, M. -J., & Tsai, C. -C. (2003). Information searching strategies in web-based science learning: The role of internet self-efficacy. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 40, 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk-Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Toward the understanding of a multi-faceted construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tschannen-Moran, M., Woolfolk-Hoy, A., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68, 202–248.Google Scholar
  53. van Driel, J. H., Verloop, N., & de Vos, W. (1998). Developing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35, 673–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Varnhagen, C. K., Drake, S. M., & Finley, G. (1997). Teaching statistics with the internet. Teaching of Psychology, 24, 275–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Walker, S. L., & Fraser, B. J. (2005). Development and validation of an instrument for assessing distance education learning environments in higher education: The distance education learning environments survey (DELES). Learning Environments Research, 8, 289–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wallace, R. M. (2004). A framework for understanding teaching with the internet. American Education Research Journal, 41, 447–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Weng, L. -J. (2004). Impact of the number of response categories and anchor labels on coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 956–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Windschitl, M. (1998). The WWW and classroom research: What path should we take? Educational Researcher, 27(1), 28–33.Google Scholar
  59. Woo, M. A., & Kimmick, J. V. (2000). Comparison of internet versus lecture instructional methods for teaching nursing research. Journal of Professional Nursing, 16, 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yaghi, H. M. (2001). Subject matter as a factor in educational computing by teachers in international settings. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 24, 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yaghi, H. M., & Abu-Saba, B. (1998). Teachers’ computer anxiety: An international perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 14, 321–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhao, Y., Pugh, K., Sheldon, S., & Byers, J. L. (2002). Conditions for classroom technology innovations. Teachers College Record, 104, 482–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhu, E. P. (2006). Interaction and cognitive engagement: An analysis of four asynchronous online discussions. Instructional Science, 34, 451–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.National Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations