Instructional Science

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 499–517 | Cite as

Effects of multimedia annotations on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced learners of english as a foreign language

  • Yavuz AkbulutEmail author


The study investigates immediate and delayed effects of different hypermedia glosses on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced foreign language learners. Sixty-nine freshman TEFL students studying at a Turkish university were randomly assigned to three types of annotations: (a) definitions of words, (b) definitions coupled with associated pictures, and (c) definitions coupled with associated short videos. Subjects were asked to read an annotated text with the intention of comprehension. The data were collected through a vocabulary pre-test, a vocabulary post-test, a delayed vocabulary test as well as a reading comprehension test. In order to measure incidental vocabulary learning, subjects were not told that they were going to be given vocabulary tests. Results showed that the groups that had access to definitions along with both types of visuals had significantly higher vocabulary scores on both immediate and delayed post-tests than the definition only group. However, no differences were observed on the reading comprehension test. Finally, the qualitative data revealed that hypermedia reading had positive impact on participants’ attitudes towards foreign language reading and vocabulary learning.


Multimedia/hypermedia systems Media in education Generative Theory of multimedia learning Second/foreign language learning Incidental vocabulary learning Reading comprehension 



I am grateful to Dr. Gülcan Ercetin at Bogazici University for her generous editorial support from the early stages of this study. I would like to thank Prof. Gary R. Morrison at Old Dominion University for his contribution on the Cognitive Load Theory. I would also like to express my gratitude to two anonymous reviewers for their invaluable feedback on the earlier drafts of the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Education, Department of Computer Education and Instructional TechnologiesAnadolu UniversityEskisehirTurkey

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