Advertisement

Instructional Science

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 499–517 | Cite as

Effects of multimedia annotations on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced learners of english as a foreign language

  • Yavuz AkbulutEmail author
Article

Abstract

The study investigates immediate and delayed effects of different hypermedia glosses on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced foreign language learners. Sixty-nine freshman TEFL students studying at a Turkish university were randomly assigned to three types of annotations: (a) definitions of words, (b) definitions coupled with associated pictures, and (c) definitions coupled with associated short videos. Subjects were asked to read an annotated text with the intention of comprehension. The data were collected through a vocabulary pre-test, a vocabulary post-test, a delayed vocabulary test as well as a reading comprehension test. In order to measure incidental vocabulary learning, subjects were not told that they were going to be given vocabulary tests. Results showed that the groups that had access to definitions along with both types of visuals had significantly higher vocabulary scores on both immediate and delayed post-tests than the definition only group. However, no differences were observed on the reading comprehension test. Finally, the qualitative data revealed that hypermedia reading had positive impact on participants’ attitudes towards foreign language reading and vocabulary learning.

Keywords

Multimedia/hypermedia systems Media in education Generative Theory of multimedia learning Second/foreign language learning Incidental vocabulary learning Reading comprehension 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to Dr. Gülcan Ercetin at Bogazici University for her generous editorial support from the early stages of this study. I would like to thank Prof. Gary R. Morrison at Old Dominion University for his contribution on the Cognitive Load Theory. I would also like to express my gratitude to two anonymous reviewers for their invaluable feedback on the earlier drafts of the study.

References

  1. American heritage® dictionary of the English Language (4th edn.). (2000). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  2. Ariew, R. (1999). Reading toolbox (Version 2.0). [Computer Software]. Tucson, AZ.Google Scholar
  3. Ariew, R., & Ercetin, G. (2004). Exploring the potential of hypermedia annotations for second language reading. Computer Assisted Language Learning Journal, 17(2), 237–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, J. D. (1996). Testing in language programs. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.Google Scholar
  5. Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1991). Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 8, 293–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiquito, A. B., Meskill, C., & Renjilian-Burgy, J. (1997). Multiple, mixed, and malleable media. In M. D. Bush (Ed.), Technology-enhanced language learning (pp. 47–76). Illinois: National Textbook Company.Google Scholar
  7. Chun, D. M. (2001). L2 reading on the web: Strategies for accessing information in hypermedia. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 14, 367–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chun, D. M., & Plass, J. L. (1996). Effects of multimedia annotations on vocabulary acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis, J. N., & Lyman-Hager, M. (1997). Computers and L2 reading: Student performance, student abilities. Foreign Language Annals, 30, 58–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Ridder, I. (2003). Reading from the screen in a second language. Apeldoorn: Granat Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Horst, M., Cobb, T., & Meara, P. (1998). Beyond a clockwork orange: Acquiring second language vocabulary through reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 11, 207–223.Google Scholar
  12. Huck, S. W. (2000). Reading statistics and research. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  13. Huckin, T., & Coady, J. (1999). Incidental vocabulary learning in a second language: A review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hulstijn, J. H. (1992). Retention of inferred and given word meanings: Experiments in incidental vocabulary learning. In P. Arnaud & H. Béjoint (Eds.), Vocabulary and applied linguistics (pp. 113–125). London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  15. Hulstijn, J. H., Hollander, M., & Greidanus, T. (1996). Incidental vocabulary learning by advanced foreign language students: The influence of marginal glosses, dictionary use, and reoccurrence of unknown words. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 327–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Joe, A. (1995). Text-based tasks and incidental vocabulary learning. Second Language Research, 11, 149–158.Google Scholar
  17. Knight, S. (1994). Dictionary: The tool of last resort in foreign language reading: A new perspective. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 285–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ko, M. H. (2005). Glosses, comprehension, and strategy use. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17. Retrieved November 24, 2006 from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/October2005/ko/ko.html.Google Scholar
  19. Kramsch, C., & Andersen, R. W. (1999). Teaching text and context through multimedia. Language Learning and Technology, 2, 31–42.Google Scholar
  20. Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. New York: Pergamon Publishers.Google Scholar
  21. Krashen, S. D. (1994). The input hypothesis and its rivals. In N.C. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 45–78). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Laufer, B., & Hulstijn, J. (2001). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: The construct of task-induced involvement. Applied Linguistics, 22, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leffa, V. J. (1992). Making foreign language texts comprehensible for beginners: An experiment with an electronic dictionary. System, 20, 63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lomicka, L. (1998). To gloss or not to gloss: An investigation of reading comprehension online. Language Learning and Technology, 1, 41–50.Google Scholar
  25. Luppescu, S., & Day, R. (1993). Reading, dictionaries and vocabulary learning. Language Learning, 43, 263–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mayer, R. E. (1997). Multimedia learning: Are we asking the right questions? Educational Psychologist, 32, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (2002). Aids to computer-based multimedia learning. Learning and Instruction, 12, 107–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mayer, R. E., & Sims, V. K. (1994). For whom is a picture worth a thousand words? Extensions of a dual-coding theory of multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 389–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mousavi, S. Y., Low, R., & Sweller, J. (1995). Reducing cognitive load by mixing auditory and visual presentation modes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 319–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. New York: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Newton, J. (1995). Task-based interaction and incidental vocabulary learning: A case study. Second Language Research, 11, 159–177.Google Scholar
  33. Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Paribakht, T. S., & Wesche, M. (1999). Incidental L2 vocabulary acquisition through reading: An introspective study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 195–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Plass, J. L., Chun, D. M., Mayer, R. E., & Leutner, D. (2003). Cognitive load in reading a foreign language text with multimedia aids and the influence of verbal and spatial abilities. Computers in Human Behavior, 19, 221–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Roby, W. B. (1999). What’s in a gloss? Language Learning and Technology, 2, 94–101.Google Scholar
  37. Roget’s II: The new thesaurus (3rd edn.). (1995). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  38. Rott, S. (1999). The effect of exposure frequency on intermediate language learner’s incidental vocabulary acquisition and retention through reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 589–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Seghayer, K. (2001). The effect of multimedia annotation modes on L2 vocabulary acquisition: A comparative study. Language Learning & Technology, 5, 202–232.Google Scholar
  40. Shea, P. (1996). Media, multimedia, and meaningful language learning: A review of the literature. Paper presented at WebNet 96, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  41. Smith, L. C., & Mare, N. N. (1997). Topics for today: An advanced reading skills text. Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.Google Scholar
  42. Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  43. Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4, 295–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sweller, J., Van Merrienboer, J. J. G., & Paas, F. G. W. C. (1998). Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 251–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Şakar, A., & Ercetin, G. (2005). Effectiveness of hypermedia annotations for foreign language reading. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 28–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Taylor, A. (2006). Factors associated with glossing: Comments on Ko (2005). Reading in a Foreign Language, 18. Retrieved November 24, 2006 from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/April2006/discussion/taylor.html.Google Scholar
  47. Urquhart, S., & Weir, C. (1998). Reading in a second language: Process, product and practice. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  48. Waring, R., & Takaki, M. (2003). At what rate do learners learn and retain new vocabulary from reading a graded reader? Reading in a Foreign Language, 15, 130–163.Google Scholar
  49. Watanabe, Y. (1997). Input, intake and retention: Effects of increased processing on incidental learning of foreign language vocabulary. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 287–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wesche, M., & Paribakht, T. S. (1999). Introduction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 175–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Widdowson, H. G. (1984). Teaching language as communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Wode, H. (1999). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in the foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 243–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yoshii, M. (2006). L1 and L2 glosses: Their effects on incidental vocabulary learning. Language Learning & Technology, 10, 85–101. Retrieved November 24, 200 from http://llt.msu.edu/vol10num3/yoshii/default.html.Google Scholar
  54. Zobl, H. (1995). Converging evidence for the acquisition-learning distinction. Applied Linguistics, 16, 35–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Education, Department of Computer Education and Instructional TechnologiesAnadolu UniversityEskisehirTurkey

Personalised recommendations