Whey protein polymorphisms in Sudanese goat breeds

  • Siham A. RahmatallaEmail author
  • Danny Arends
  • Ammar Said Ahmed
  • Monika Reissmann
  • Gudrun A. BrockmannEmail author
Regular Articles


The aim of the present study was to assess genetic variation that is characteristic for Sudanese goat breeds in the milk whey protein genes (LALBA and BLG). Four Sudanese goat breeds were screened for variability in LALBA and BLG genes at the DNA level by comparative sequencing of five animals per breed. Sixteen SNPs were identified in LALBA: seven in the upstream region, six synonymous, and three in the 3´-UTR. Three novel synonymous SNPs in exon 2 (ss5197800003, ss5197800012, and ss5197800004) were found in Nubian, Desert, and Nilotic, but not in Taggar goats. One SNP in the promoter of LALBA (rs642745519) modifies a predicted transcription factor binding site for Tcfe2a. The SNPs in the 3'-UTR (rs657915405, rs641559728, and rs664225585) affect predicted miRNA target sites. With respect to haplotypes in the exonic region, haplotype LALBA-A is most frequent in Nubian, Desert, and Nilotic goats, while haplotype LALBA-D is prevalent in Taggar goats. In BLG, 30 SNPs were detected: eight in the upstream gene region, two synonymous, 17 intronic, and three in the 3'-UTR. Among the 30 identified SNPs, 15 were novel. Four of these novel SNPs were located in the upstream gene region, one was synonymous, and ten were intronic. The novel synonymous SNP (ss5197800017), located in exon 2, was only found in Nubian and Nilotic goats. The SNPs ss5197800010 and rs635615192 in the promoter are located in predicted binding sites of transcription factors (M6097, Elk3, Elf5, and GABPA). Among seven haplotypes detected in the coding region, haplotype BLG-A is most frequent in Nubian and Nilotic goats while haplotype BLG-B is most frequent in Desert and Taggar goats. The high variability in regulatory gene regions among Sudanese goats could potentially affect the quality and yield of whey proteins in goat milk and provide a wide resource for genetic improvement of milk production and milk technology characteristics.


Whey protein Sudanese goat breeds Single nucleotide polymorphism Genetic diversity 



The authors thank the goat owners in Sudan, the management staff of the Goat Research Stations Wad Medani, Kuku and Dongola, as well as the farms of Bahri and the Sudan University for providing goat samples.


SR and this study were funded by Georg Foster Research Fellowship provided by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All samples were collected with permission from the owners of the different animals.

Supplementary material

11250_2019_2119_MOESM1_ESM.doc (39 kb)
Additional file 1 (DOC 39 kb)
11250_2019_2119_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (346 kb)
Additional file 2 Sequence logos of the transcription factor binding sites (JPG 345 kb)


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institut für Agrar- und GartenbauwissenschaftenHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of Dairy Production, Faculty of Animal ProductionUniversity of KhartoumKhartoum NorthSudan

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