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Characterization of small-scale dairy farms and its relation to water use efficiency in the Mexicali Valley, Mexico

  • Leonel Avendaño-Reyes
  • Peter H. Robinson
  • Juan A. Hernández-Rivera
  • Abelardo Correa-Calderón
  • Ángel López-López
  • Miguel Mellado
  • Ulises Macías-CruzEmail author
Regular Articles
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Abstract

A survey was completed to determine water use by small-scale dairy farms in Mexicali Valley of Mexico and to associate it with dairy production parameters. Mexicali Valley surrounds the capital city of the state Baja California, Mexicali. Sixty-one smallholders were interviewed in person in this rural area of northwestern Mexico. On average, small dairy holders had more than 20 years of experience and were ~ 55 years of age; people working on their farms are especially relatives. A low percentage was literate (20%), and they belong to a local dairy association. Milk yield/cow/year does not reach 4000 kg of milk and 75% of producers do not follow a defined management program for their cattle. Hand-milking is still practiced by 27% of the producers, and there is a general lack of infrastructure to maintain milk in a refrigerated state so that there is a very high risk of zoonotic diseases. Water use efficiency (WUE) was linearly correlated (P < 0.05) with total irrigated area, but not with animal production parameters. Regression equations constructed to explain WUE exhibited low adjustment, and WUE was not associated (P > 0.05) with milk yield. Small dairy producers in Mexicali Valley are in a generally poor situation with low water use practices; however, required more government support to increase their benefits from this livestock activity.

Keywords

Smallholders Milk production Irrigated pastures Mexico Water use 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

All experimental procedures used in the present research project were approved and supervised by the Ethic and Research Committee of the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California. Since the project involved the answer of a survey by smallholders, consensus of them was required and obtained.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonel Avendaño-Reyes
    • 1
  • Peter H. Robinson
    • 2
  • Juan A. Hernández-Rivera
    • 3
  • Abelardo Correa-Calderón
    • 1
  • Ángel López-López
    • 1
  • Miguel Mellado
    • 4
  • Ulises Macías-Cruz
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Instituto de Ciencias AgrícolasValle de MexicaliMexico
  2. 2.UCCE, Dept. of Animal ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y ZootecniaUniversidad de ColimaColimaMexico
  4. 4.Departamento de Nutrición AnimalUniversidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio NarroSaltilloMexico

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