Identification and genetic analysis of infectious bursal disease viruses from field outbreaks in Kerala, India
- 13 Downloads
Recurrent infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreaks were reported in different regions of Kerala, India. This paper reports the comparative genetic analysis of the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene of IBD virus isolates from the field outbreaks in Kerala. In phylogenetic analysis, the obtained field isolates fall into genogroup 1 and 3. In genogroup 3, all vvIBDV isolates shared a common ancestor with other south Indian isolates but isolates 9/CVASP/IBDV, 10/CVASP/IBDV, 12/CVASP/IBDV, 14/CVASP/IBDV and 17/CVASP/IBDV are most recently evolved and are diverged from the south Indian isolates. The amino acid sequence of 22 isolates was analysed, out of which 18 had conserved amino acids which were characteristic of vvIBDV. All the vvIBDV isolates obtained in the study had phenylalanine and valine at the position 240 and 294, respectively, similar to recently evolved Indian IBDV isolate (MDI14). But we observed T269A and S299N mutations in the isolate 6/CVASP/IBDV, and it is the first report of such mutations at these positions in India IBDV isolates. The isolate 11/CVASP/IBDV had a unique mutation of V225A which is not yet reported in IBDV isolates. Two isolates (15/CVASP/IBDV and 18/CVASP/IBDV) were 100% amino acid similar to intermediate plus vaccine strain. The isolates 8/CVASP/IBDV/VP2 and 19/CVASP/IBDV had amino acids unique for the intermediate vaccine with mutations observed at H253Q and V256I in 19/CVASP/IBDV, T270A and novel mutation N279Y in isolate 8/CVASP/IBDV. These two isolates had non-virulent classical heptapeptide sequence ‘SWSARGS’; nevertheless, they produce field outbreaks of IBD. This is the first report of genetic characterisation of IBDV in Kerala, India.
KeywordsInfectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) Hypervariable VP2 gene Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) Phylogenetic analysis Amino acid substitutions
The authors thank the Dean, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookode for providing facilities for the conduct of the study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was performed per the guidelines for the care and use of animals by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, College of Veterinary and Animal sciences, Pookode and Animal welfare board of India.
- Barathidasan, R., Singh, S., Kumar, M.A., Desingu, P., Palanivelu, M., Singh, M., and Dhama, K., 2013. Recurrent outbreaks of infecous bursal disease (IBD) in a layer farm caused by very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV) in India: pathology and molecular analysis. South Asian Journal of Expression Biology, 3, 200–6.Google Scholar
- Bayliss, C. D., Spies, U., Shaw, K., Peters, R. W., Papageorgiou, A., Muller, H., and Boursnell, M. E., 1990. A comparison of the sequences of segment A of four infectious bursal disease virus strains and identification of a variable region in VP2. Journal of General Virology, 71, 1303–1312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Boudaoud, A., Mamache, B., Tombari, W., and Ghram, A., 2016. Virus mutations and their impact on vaccination against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease). Revue Scientifique et Technique International Office of Epizootics, 35, 1–29.Google Scholar
- Castón, J.R., Martı́nez-Torrecuadrada, J.L., Maraver, A., Lombardo, E., Rodrı́guez, J.F., Casal, J.I., and Carrascosa, J.L., 2001. C terminus of infectious bursal disease virus major capsid protein VP2 is involved in definition of the T number for capsid assembly. Journal of virology, 75, 10815–10828.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Delmas, B., Mundt, E., Vakharia, V.N., and Wu. J.L., 2011. Family birnaviridae. King, A.M., Lefkowitz, E., Adams, M.J., and Carstens, E.B. eds., 2011. Virus taxonomy: ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (Vol. 9). Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Dias, C.C.A., Souza, F.D.O., Silva, E.M.S.A.D., Eller, M.R., Barrios, P.R., Santos, B.M.D., Moraes, M.P., and Almeida, M.R.D., 2009. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the infectious bursal disease virus isolates from outbreak in layer flocks in the state of Minas Gerais. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 40, 205–207.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eterradossi, N., and Saif, Y.M., 2013. Infectious bursal disease. Disease of. Poultry, 13, 219–246.Google Scholar
- Eterradossi, N., Picault, J.P., Drouin, P., Guittet, M., L'Hospitalier, R., and Bennejean, G., 1992. Pathogenicity and preliminary antigenic characterization of six infectious bursal disease virus strains isolated in France from acute outbreaks. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series B, 39, 683–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heine, H.G., Haritou, M., Failla, P., Fahey, K. and Azad, A., 1991. Sequence analysis and expression of the host-protective immunogen VP2 of a variant strain of infectious bursal disease virus which can circumvent vaccination with standard type I strains. Journal of General Virology, 72, 1835–1843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khan, R.S.A., Habib, M., Ali, W., Shah, M.S.U.D., Ashraf, A., Tahir, Z.A., Helal, Z.H., Khan, M.I., Mahboob, S., Khalid, A., and Al-Misned, F., 2018. Phylogenetic analysis of Infectious Bursal Disease viruses according to newly proposed model of classification into geno-groups. Journal of infection and public health, 12, 410–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lawal, N.U., Hair-Bejo, M., Arshad, S.S., Omar, A.R., and Ideris, A., 2017. Adaptation and molecular characterization of two malaysian very virulent infectious bursal disease virus isolates adapted in BGM-70 cell line. Advances in virology.Google Scholar
- McFerran, J.B., McNulty, M.S., McKillop, E.R., Connor, T.J., McCracken, R.M., Collins, D.S., and Allan, G.M., 1980. Isolation and serological studies with infectious bursal disease viruses from fowl, turkeys and ducks: demonstration of a second serotype. Avian Pathology, 9, 395–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- OIE Terrestrial Manual (2016) CHAPTER 2.3.12. Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro Disease). Availableonline:http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_ standards/tahm/2.03.12_IBD.pdf. Accessed 20 Nov 2019.
- Raja, P., Senthilkumar, T.M.A., Priyadarshini, C.V., Parthiban, M., Thangavelu, A., Mangala, A.G., Palanisammi, A., and Kumanan, K., 2018. Sequence analysis of VP2 hypervariable region of the field isolates of infectious bursal disease viruses from southern region of India. Acta Virologica, 62, 86–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sah, R.L., Kataria, J.M., Arya, S.C., and Verma, K.C., 1995. Outbreaks of acute infectious bursal disease causing high mortality in chicken. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 16, 7–13.Google Scholar
- Satigui, S., Yaya, S.K., Martin, D., Diakaridia, T., Adama, D., Modibo, S., Mohamed, N., Fousseyni, S., Amadou, C., Tidiani, D., and Kassim, S., 2017. Molecular Characterization of the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Strains in the Modern Poultry Farms Located in the Suburban Areas of Bamako District in Mali. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 38, 43–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Savic, V., Biđin, Z., Čajavec, S., Stancic, M., Gjurcevic, D., and Savic, G., 1997. Epidemic of infectious bursal disease in Croatia during the period 1995-1996: Field and experimental observations. Veterinarski arhiv, 67, 243–251.Google Scholar
- Valsala, K.V. and Gopalakrishnan Nair, M., Koshivarghese and Rajan A., 1988. Prevalence of infectious bursal disease in Kerala. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science, 19, 60–64.Google Scholar