Identification and genetic analysis of infectious bursal disease viruses from field outbreaks in Kerala, India

  • D. Nandhakumar
  • R. RajasekharEmail author
  • G. Logeshwaran
  • Chintu Ravishankar
  • Stephy Rose Sebastian
  • R. Anoopraj
  • K. Sumod
  • Binu K. Mani
  • G. Chaithra
  • Chandankar Vaidehi Deorao
  • Koshy John
Regular Articles


Recurrent infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreaks were reported in different regions of Kerala, India. This paper reports the comparative genetic analysis of the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene of IBD virus isolates from the field outbreaks in Kerala. In phylogenetic analysis, the obtained field isolates fall into genogroup 1 and 3. In genogroup 3, all vvIBDV isolates shared a common ancestor with other south Indian isolates but isolates 9/CVASP/IBDV, 10/CVASP/IBDV, 12/CVASP/IBDV, 14/CVASP/IBDV and 17/CVASP/IBDV are most recently evolved and are diverged from the south Indian isolates. The amino acid sequence of 22 isolates was analysed, out of which 18 had conserved amino acids which were characteristic of vvIBDV. All the vvIBDV isolates obtained in the study had phenylalanine and valine at the position 240 and 294, respectively, similar to recently evolved Indian IBDV isolate (MDI14). But we observed T269A and S299N mutations in the isolate 6/CVASP/IBDV, and it is the first report of such mutations at these positions in India IBDV isolates. The isolate 11/CVASP/IBDV had a unique mutation of V225A which is not yet reported in IBDV isolates. Two isolates (15/CVASP/IBDV and 18/CVASP/IBDV) were 100% amino acid similar to intermediate plus vaccine strain. The isolates 8/CVASP/IBDV/VP2 and 19/CVASP/IBDV had amino acids unique for the intermediate vaccine with mutations observed at H253Q and V256I in 19/CVASP/IBDV, T270A and novel mutation N279Y in isolate 8/CVASP/IBDV. These two isolates had non-virulent classical heptapeptide sequence ‘SWSARGS’; nevertheless, they produce field outbreaks of IBD. This is the first report of genetic characterisation of IBDV in Kerala, India.


Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) Hypervariable VP2 gene Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) Phylogenetic analysis Amino acid substitutions 



The authors thank the Dean, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookode for providing facilities for the conduct of the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

This study was performed per the guidelines for the care and use of animals by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, College of Veterinary and Animal sciences, Pookode and Animal welfare board of India.

Informed consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Nandhakumar
    • 1
  • R. Rajasekhar
    • 1
    Email author
  • G. Logeshwaran
    • 1
  • Chintu Ravishankar
    • 1
  • Stephy Rose Sebastian
    • 1
  • R. Anoopraj
    • 2
  • K. Sumod
    • 1
  • Binu K. Mani
    • 1
  • G. Chaithra
    • 1
  • Chandankar Vaidehi Deorao
    • 1
  • Koshy John
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary MicrobiologyCollege of Veterinary and Animal SciencesPookodeIndia
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary PathologyCollege of Veterinary and Animal SciencesPookodeIndia

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