Indigenous Tswana pig production characteristics and management practices in southern districts of Botswana

  • Ketshephaone ThutwaEmail author
  • Ricks Chabo
  • Shalaulani James Nsoso
  • Molebeledi Mareko
  • Patrick Monametsi Kgwatalala
  • Enoch Owusu-Sekyere
Regular Articles


Indigenous animal genetic resources are vital in agriculture especially in the era of climate change because they are adapted to the harsh local conditions. Therefore, their conservation through utilisation is necessary. Indigenous Tswana pigs are one of the animal genetic resources that need to be protected from becoming extinct. The aim of this study was to determine the population of Tswana pigs, their production characteristics and management practices in the southern districts of Botswana. A survey was done in 15 villages in Kweneng, Kgatleng and South East districts of southern Botswana. A combination of purposive and convenience sampling methods was used to select villages and households where the survey was conducted. A questionnaire with closed- and opened-ended questions was administered to 71 indigenous pig farmers. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics procedure, frequency procedure and principal component analysis. The study established that indigenous Tswana pigs are mainly kept and managed by middle-aged and elderly women with lower level of education and no formal employment. These farmers keep Tswana pigs alongside other livestock species. The population of indigenous Tswana pigs in the surveyed districts is 620. Farmers keep indigenous pigs for cash and for home consumption. The pigs are kept in the backyard and fed kitchen leftovers and others are left to scavenge for feeds. Farmers do not put much effort in attending the health of the indigenous pigs; hence, their ignorance of the parasites and diseases affecting the pigs.


Indigenous Population Production characteristics Management practices Tswana pigs 



The authors also acknowledge Ms. Khumoetsile Sebotsa and Mr. Joseph Kago Motshwarapitse for their assistance in collecting the data, Ms. Betty Phalalo for her assistance in capturing the data into Microsoft excel and Dr. Lawrence Akanyang for assisting with the map.

Funding information

The authors acknowledge Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources for sponsoring this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Statement of human rights

This study did not collect any confidential or private information of the farmers; therefore, it was approved by Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Publication Committee.

Statement of animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors. Therefore, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources Animal Care and Use Committee was not consulted.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ketshephaone Thutwa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ricks Chabo
    • 1
  • Shalaulani James Nsoso
    • 1
  • Molebeledi Mareko
    • 1
  • Patrick Monametsi Kgwatalala
    • 1
  • Enoch Owusu-Sekyere
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Animal Science and ProductionBotswana University of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesGaboroneBotswana
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural EconomicsUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa

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