Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 8, pp 2351–2360 | Cite as

Utilization of blue panic (Panicum antidotale) as an alternative feed resource for feeding Barky sheep in arid regions

  • S. M. A. Sallam
  • M. M. H. Khalil
  • M. F. A. Attia
  • H. M. El-Zaiat
  • M. G. Abdellattif
  • H. M. Abo-Zeid
  • Moustafa M. ZeitounEmail author
Regular Articles


This study aimed at elucidating effects of replacing sorghum with blue panic (BP) on total dry matter intake (TDMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), apparent nutrient digestibility, blood biochemical constituents, rumen fermentation patterns and economic feasibility of Barky male lambs. Fifteen lambs (av. BW, 22.5 ± 1.6 kg) were randomly allotted into 3 treatments (n = 5/group). Control lambs were given a diet of concentrate mixture (CM) plus sorghum (S), BP50% lambs were given a diet of CM plus (S: PB 1:1) and BP100% lambs were given CM plus PB. The experiment lasted for 54 days. At the last week of the experiment, the apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were determined using lignin contents of feeds and faeces as an internal marker. Blood samples were collected at weeks 3, 5 and 7 to determine serum biochemical parameters. Results showed that TDMI significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by diet, whereas ADG was not affected. Mean FCR values were 5.67, 5.46 and 5.86 for control, BP50% and BP100%, respectively. Neither nutrients digestibility nor ruminal fermentation parameters were affected (P > 0.05) by total replacement of sorghum with BP. Likewise, none of the serum biochemical constituents were different in BP than in control lambs. This study concluded that BP grass would be considered as one of the promising tropical green forages in the arid regions as an alternative feedstuff in case of shortage of green fodders.


Blue panic Digestibility Growth performance Blood metabolites 


Compliance with ethical standards

This study was approved by the ethical guideline committee of the Animal and Fish Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abo-Zeid, H.M., El-Zaiat, H.M., Morsy, A.S., Attia, M.F.A., Abaza, M.A. and Sallam, S.M.A., 2017. Effects of replacing dietary corn grains with increasing levels of sugar beet pulp on rumen fermentation constituents and performance of growing Egyptian buffalo calves. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 234, 128–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allam, A.M., Nagadi, S.A., Bakhashwain, A.A. and Sallam, S.M.A., 2013. Impact of sub-tropical grass grown in arid region on methane emission, milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 11 (2), 620–625.Google Scholar
  3. AOAC 2006. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Ed. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington, DC. USA.Google Scholar
  4. Boniface, A.N., Murray, R.M. and Hogan, J.P., 1986. Optimum level of ammonia in rumen liquor of cattle fed tropical pasture hay. Proceeding of the Australian Society of Animal Production, 16, 151.Google Scholar
  5. Castro-Montoya, J.M., García, R.A., Ramos, R.A., Flores, J.M., Alas, E.A. and Corea, E.E., 2018. Dairy cows fed on tropical legume forages: effects on milk yield, nutrients use efficiency and profitability. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 50 (4), 837–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Devendra, C., 1990. The use of shrubs and tree fodders by ruminants. In Devendra, C. (Ed.). Shrubs and Tree Fodders for Farm Animals. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Pp. 24–29.Google Scholar
  7. Doumas, B., Wabson, W.W. and Biggs, H., 1971. Albumin standards and measurement of serum with bromocresol green. Clinical Chemical Acta, 31: 87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. El-Talty, Y.I., Abd El-Gawad, M.H. and Deif, A.E.M., 2009. Freshwater reed (Phragmttes australis) silage as un-conventional forage in feeding lactating buffaloes. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds, 12 Special Issue :45–57.Google Scholar
  9. FAO, 2017. Animal Production.
  10. Gohl, B.O., 1975. Tropical feeds: feeds information, summaries and nutritive values. FAO, Rome (Italy). Animal Production and Health Development, 665 p.Google Scholar
  11. Khan, M.A., Nisa, M.U. and Sarwar, M., 2003. Techniques measuring digestibility for the nutritional evaluation of feeds. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 5, 91–94.Google Scholar
  12. Lascano, G., Koch, L. and Heinrichs, A., 2016. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-degradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fibre and forage-to-concentrate ratios. Journal of Dairy Science, 99, 7175–7190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. MacRae, J.C. and Lobley, G.E., 1982. Some factors which influence thermal energy losses during the metabolism of ruminants. Livestock Production Science, 9, 447–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. MacRae, J.C., Smith, J.S., Dewey, P.J.S., Brewer, A.C., Brown, D.S. and Walker, A., 1985. The efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy and apparent absorption of amino acids in sheep given spring- and autumn-harvested dried grass. British Journal of Nutrition, 54, 197–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Meissner, H.H., Smuts, M., Van Niekerk, W.A. and Acheampong-Boateng, O., 1993. Rumen ammonia concentrations, and non-ammonia nitrogen passage to and apparent absorption from the small intestine of sheep ingesting subtropical, temperate and tannin-containing forages. South African Journal of Animal Science, 23, 92–97.Google Scholar
  16. Moorby, J., Dewhurst, R., Evans, R. and Danelón, J., 2006. Effects of dairy cow diet forage proportion on duodenal nutrient supply and urinary purine derivative excretion. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 3552–3562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Murray, R.L., 1984. Creatinine. Kaplan, A. et al. Clinical Chemistry, The C.V. Mosby Co. St. Louis. Toronto. Princeton, 1261–1266 and 418.Google Scholar
  18. Orskov, E.R., 1982. Protein nutrition in ruminants. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  19. Playne, M.J. and Kennedy, P.M., 1976. Ruminal volatile fatty acids and ammonia in cattle grazing dry tropical pastures. The Journal of Agriculture Science, 86, 367–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Radwan, S.S., 1978. Coupling of two dimensional thin layer chromatography with GC for the quantitative analysis of lipid classes and their constituent’s fatty acids. Journal of Chromatographic Science 16 (11), 538–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Relling, E.A., van Niekerk, W.A., Coertze, R.J. and Rethman, N.F.G., 2001. An evaluation of Panicum maximum cv. Gatton: 2. The influence of stage of maturity on diet selection, intake and rumen fermentation in sheep. South African Journal of Animal Science, 31, 85–91.Google Scholar
  22. Roche, J.R., Blache, D., Kay, J.K., Miller, D.R., Sheahan, A.J. and Miller, D.W., 2008. Neuroendocrine and physiological regulation of intake with particular reference to domesticated ruminant animals. Nutrition Research Reviews, 21 (2), 207–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sarwar, M., Khan, M.A. and Nisa, M., 2004. Influence of ruminally protected fat and urea treated corncobs on nutrient intake, digestibility, milk yield and its composition in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Asian-Australisian Journal of Animal Science, 17, 171–175.Google Scholar
  24. Sarwar, M., Mahr-un-Nisa, Ajmal Khan, M. and Mushtaque, M., 2005. Chemical composition, herbage yield and nutritive value of Panicum antidotale and Pennisetum orientale for Nili Buffaloes at different clipping intervals. Asian-Australisian Journal of Animal Science, 19 (2), 176–180.Google Scholar
  25. Sleugh, B.B., Moore, K.J., Brummer, E.C., Knapp, A.D., Russell, J. and Gibson, L., 2001. Forage nutritive value of various Amaranth species at different harvest dates. Crop Sciences, 41, 466–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Soltan, Y.A., Morsy, A.S., Sallam, S.M.A., Lucas, R.A., Louvandini, H.L., Kreuzer, M. and Abdalla, A.L., 2013. Contribution of condensed tannins and mimosine to the methane mitigation caused by feeding leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala). Archive of Animal Nutrition, 67 (3), 169–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. SPSS. (2007). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. IBM SPSS Statistics for windows, version 16.0. Aromonk, NY: IBM Crop., USA.Google Scholar
  28. Tietz, N.W., 1995. Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition. AACC.Google Scholar
  29. Tietz, P.S., Holman, R.T., Miller, L.J. and LaRusso, N.F., 1995. Isolation and characterization of rat cholangiocyte vesicles enriched in apical or basolateral plasma membrane domains. Biochemistry, 34, 15436–15443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Van Soest, P.J., 1973. Collaborative study of acid-detergent fibre and lignin. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemistry, 56, 781–784.Google Scholar
  31. Van Soest, P.J., 1982. Nutritional ecology of the ruminants. O & B Books, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.Google Scholar
  32. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre, and non-starch polysaccharide in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583–3597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Young, D.S., 1990. Effects of drugs on clinical laboratory Tests, 3rd Ed., 3, 168–182.Google Scholar
  34. Young, D.S., 1995. Effects of drugs on clinical laboratory Tests, 4th Ed. AACC Press.Google Scholar
  35. Zewdu, T., 2005. Variation in growth, yield, chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of Napier grass accessions (Pennisetum purpureum). Tropical Science, 45, 67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of AgricultureAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt
  2. 2.Faculty of Desert and Environmental AgricultureMatruh UniversityMarsa MatrouhEgypt
  3. 3.Agricultural Research CenterAnimal Production Research InstituteGizaEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Animal Production and Breeding, College of Agriculture and Veterinary MedicineQassim UniversityBuraydahSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations