Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 8, pp 2371–2377 | Cite as

Prevalence and distribution of Trypanosoma evansi in camels in Somaliland

  • A. A. SalahEmail author
  • I.D. Robertson
  • A. SH. Mohamed
Regular Articles


The prevalence and distribution of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) infection on camels in Somaliland were studied using the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi). A total of 2575 camels were surveyed. The overall animal-level apparent (test) prevalence in Somaliland was 26.4%. The prevalence was highest in the Sahil Region (37.3%) followed by Togdheer (28.4%), Sanaag (27.4%), and Sool (26.2%). There was a significant difference in the seroprevalence between the regions (χ2 = 35.2, df = 1, P < 0.001) with the prevalence being significantly higher in Sahil than in Woqooyi Galbeed and Awdal, respectively. Camels from the eastern districts were two times more likely to be infected than camels from the western districts (P < 0.001). Herds in the coastal area were also more likely to be infected (37.0%) than herds from the inland areas (26.9%).The seroprevalence varied significantly between body condition score groups (P < 0.001) with the highest seroprevalence in camels of poor body condition (39.5%) and the lowest in camels of good body condition (18.4%) score. Animals in poor body condition were almost three times more likely to be positive than animals in good body condition (OR = 2.9; 95% CI 2.2, 3.8).


Trypanosoma evansi Prevalence Distribution Pastoral camel production 



The authors thanked the Ministry of Livestock of Somaliland for facilitating the study. We would like to acknowledge the cooperation of pastoralist and field technical staff for their considerable support and help. We are grateful for the technical support by Dr. Mohamed F. Dirie and the Somali Animal Health Services Project (Somaliland office) who willingly collaborated in the implementation of this study. We also wish to thank Sheikh Technical Veterinary School for their technical assistance.


This study was funded by Murdoch University and the International Foundation for Science (IFS) (financial supports from IFS grant number B/5121).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The authors assert that all procedures including blood-sampling protocols contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the Murdoch University.


  1. Bajyana Song, E., Hamers, R., 1988. A card agglutination test (CATT) for veterinary use based on an early VAT Ro Tat 1/2 of Trypanosoma evansi. Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale 68, 233–240.Google Scholar
  2. Baumann, M.P.O., Zessin, K.H., 1992. Productivity and health of camels (Camelus Dromedarius) in Somalia: Associations with trypanosomosis and brucellosis. Tropical Animal Health and Production 24, 145–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhutto, B., Gadahi, J.A., Shah, G., Dewani, P., Arijo, A.G., 2010. Field investigation on the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in camels in relation to sex, age, breeds and herd size. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 30, 175–177.Google Scholar
  4. Cameron, A.R. 1999. Survey Toolbox - A Practical Manual and Software Package for Active Surveillance of Livestock Diseases in Developing Countries, ACIAR Monograph No 54,330.Google Scholar
  5. Delafosse, A., Doutoum, A.A., 2004. Prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection and associated risk factors in camels in eastern Chad. Veterinary Parasitology 119, 155–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dia, M.L., Diop, C., Aminetou, M., Jacquiet, P., Thiam, A., 1997. Some factors affecting the prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi in camels in Mauritania. Veterinary Parasitology 72, 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dirie, M.F., Wallbanks, K.R., Aden, A.A., Bornstein, S., Ibrahim, M.D., 1989. Camel trypanosomiasis and its vectors in Somalia. Veterinary Parasitology 32, 285–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elamin, E.A., Elbashir, M.O.A., Saeed, E.M.A., 1998. Prevalence and infection pattern of Trypanosoma evansi in camels in mid-eastern Sudan. Tropical Animal Health and Production 30, 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ElSaid, H.M., Nantulya, V.M., Hilali, M., 1998. Diagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection among Sudanese camels imported to Egypt using card agglutination test (CATT) and antigen detection Latex Agglutination Test (Suratex). The Journal of protozoology research 8, 194–200.Google Scholar
  10. Enwezor, F.N.C., Sackey, A.K.B., 2005. Camel trypanosomosis - a review. Veterinarski arhiv 75, 439–452.Google Scholar
  11. Hagos, A., Yilkal, A., Esayass, T., Alemu, T., Fikru, R., Feseha, G., Goddeeris, B., Claes, F., 2009. Parasitological and serological survey on trypanosomosis (surra) in camels in dry and wet areas of Bale Zone, Oromyia Region, Ethiopia. 160, 569–573.Google Scholar
  12. Herrera, H.M., Dávila, A.M.R., Norek, A., Abreu, U.G., Souza, S.S., D'Andrea, P.S., Jansen, A.M., 2004. Enzootiology of Trypanosoma evansi in Pantanal, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology 125, 263–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lemecha, H., Lidetu D, Hussein I, 2008. Prevalence and distribution of camel trypanosomosis in the semi-arid and arid Awash Valley of Ethiopia. ©Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) 8, 1–9.Google Scholar
  14. Mohamed, A.S., 2007. Camel Trypanosomiasis in Sahil region of Somaliland. International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research and Control 124, 471–480.Google Scholar
  15. Ngaira, J.M., Bett, B., Karanja, S.M., Njagi, E.N.M., 2003. Evaluation of antigen and antibody rapid detection tests for Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels in Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology 114, 131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Njiru, Z.K., Constantine, C.C., Ndung, J.M., Robertson, I., Okaye, S., Thompson, R.C.A., Reid, S.A., 2004. Detection of Trypanosoma evansi in camels using PCR and CATT/T. evansi tests in Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology 124, 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Reid, S.A., Copeman, D.B., 2003. The development and validation of an antibody- ELISA to detect Trypanosoma evansi infection in cattle in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 61, 195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rogan, W.J., Gladen, B., 1978. Estimating prevalence from the results of a screening test. American Journal of Epidemiology 107, 71–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sommerlatte, M., Umar, A. 2000. An Ecological Assessment of the Coastal Plains of North Western Somalia (Somaliland) Somali Natural Resources Management ProgrammeWeb-link:
  20. Tadesse, A., Omar, A., Aragaw, K., Mekbib, B., Sheferaw, D., 2012. A study on Camel trypanosomosis in Jijiga zone, eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Advances 2, 216–219.Google Scholar
  21. Zeleke, M., Bekele, T., 2001. Effect of season on the productivity of camesl (Camelus dromedarius) and the prevalence of their major parasites in Eastern Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production 33, 321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries DevelopmentHargeisaSomalia
  2. 2.School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityPerthAustralia
  3. 3.Igad Sheikh Technical Veterinary SchoolSheikhSomalia

Personalised recommendations