Scrotal enlargement in rams and bucks in Qassim region, central of Saudi Arabia: clinical and ultrasonographic findings and seroprevalence of brucellosis
- 39 Downloads
The aim of this study was to clarify the causes of scrotal enlargement in rams and bucks in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Enlarged scrotal contents of rams and bucks (n = 153) were examined by visual inspection, palpation, and ultrasonography. Blood samples were obtained and tested for Brucella sp. infection. Clinical and ultrasonographic findings showed that scrotal enlargement was mainly associated with orchitis, peri-orchitis, and epididymitis. Miscellaneous findings were scrotal hernia, scrotal hematoma, and hydrocele. The frequencies of orchitis, peri-orchitis, and epididymitis were 47.4, 21.1, and 14.1% in Awassi rams; 54.5, 21.7, and 8.7% in Najdi rams; 52.3, 20.5, and 9.1% in Ardi bucks; and 50, 16.7, and 16.7% in Damascus bucks, respectively. Orchitis was associated with no-abscess formation (23%), single-abscess formation (15.4%), and multiple-abscesses formation (61.6%). Peri-orchitis was characterized by hard consistency, atrophy of the testes, and extensive connective tissue formation. Epididymitis was observed mainly at the tail of the epididymis (82.4%) but rarely at the head (17.6%). Epididymitis was associated in many cases with abscessation (70.6%). Males with orchitis, peri-orchitis, and epididymitis were positive for Brucella melitensis and Brucella ovis in the frequency of 21.3% and 48.8%, respectively. In conclusion, scrotal enlargement in rams and bucks in Qassim region is caused mainly by inflammation of the testis and/or epididymis and associated tremendously with brucellosis seropositivity.
KeywordsScrotal enlargement Rams Bucks Orchitis Brucella spp.
This work was performed at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was approved by the Animal Care and Welfare Committee, Deanship of Scientific Research, Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Abu-Seida, A.M., Ahmed, K.A., Torad, F.A., Marouf, S.A., 2015. Ultrasonographic and Histopathological Findings in Rams with Epididymo-Orchitis Caused by Brucella melitensis. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 35(4), 456–460.Google Scholar
- Alton, G.G., 1985. The epidemiology of Brucella melitensis in sheep and goats, In Verger, J. M., Plommet, M., eds: Brucella melitensis, a CEC seminar. Martinus Nijoff, Dordrecht-Boston-Lancaster, 187–196.Google Scholar
- Alton, G.G., 1990. Brucella melitensis. In: “Animal brucellosis”. (Nielsen, K., Duncan, J. R., eds). CRC Press. Boston, pp: 383–409.Google Scholar
- Blasco, J.M., 1990. Brucella ovis. In: Animal Brucellosis, Nielsen K. & Duncan J.R., eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 351–378.Google Scholar
- Braun, W.F., Cole, W.J., 1985. Unilateral scrotal hernia repair in a ram lamb. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 187, 500.Google Scholar
- Bretzlaff, K., 1994. Problems of reproduction of goats. In: Proceedings of Small Ruminant Short Course, American College of Theriogenologists and Society for Theriogenology, Kansas City, 72–74.Google Scholar
- Bulgin, M.S., 1990. Epididymitis in rams and lambs. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 6, 683–90.Google Scholar
- Buyukcangaz E., Alasonyalilar, A. D., Erdenlig, S., Misirlioglu S.D., 2013. Epididymitis and orchitis caused by Brucella melitensis biovar 3 in a Merino ram. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science, 37, 358–361Google Scholar
- Costa, L.F., Pessoa, M.S., Guimarães, L.B., Faria, A.K., Morão, R.P., Mol, J.P., Garcia, L.N., Almeida, A.C., Gouveia, A.M., Silva, M.X., Paixão, T.A., Santos, R.L., 2016. Serologic and molecular evidence of Brucella ovis infection in ovine and caprine flocks in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. BMC Research Notes, 9, 190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dechasa, G., Gemeda, A.E., 2015. Gross Reproductive Organs Abnormalities in Rams and Bucks Slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir, Eastern Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, 6, 41–47.Google Scholar
- Dénes, B., Glávits, R., 1994. Bacteriologically confirmed cases of ovine epididymo-orchitis caused by Brucella ovis in Sub-Carpathia. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 42, 25–33.Google Scholar
- Díaz-Aparicio, E., Tenorio-Gutiérrez, V.R., Arellano-Reynoso, B., Enríquez-Verdugo, I., Aguilar-Romero, F., 2009. Pathogenicity of different strains of Histophilus somni in the experimental induction of ovine epididymitis. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 73, 157–60.Google Scholar
- dos Santos, F.A., de Azevedo, E.O., de Azevedo, S.S., Garino Júnior, F., Mota, R.A., de Cássia Peixoto Kim, P., Gomes, A.L., Alves, C.J., 2014. Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 45, 205–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ferreras Mdel, C., Muñioz, M., Pérez, V., Benavides, J., García-Pariente, C., Fuertes, M., Adúriz, G., García-Marín, J.F., 2007. Unilateral orchitis and epididymitis caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae infection in a ram. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 19, 194–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fodor, L., Hajtós, I., Glávits, R., 1987. Purulent epididymitis in a sucking lamb caused by Pasteurella haemolytica. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 35, 427–31.Google Scholar
- Gomes, W.A., Souza, H.M., Silva, E.C.B., Batista, A.M., Silva, S.V., Guerra, M.M.P., 2012. Ultrasonography for diagnosis of diseases from male genital system: hydrocele in a Dorper sheep- a case report. Ciência Animal, 22, 491–493.Google Scholar
- Gouletsou, P.G., Fthenakis, G.C., Cripps, P.J., Papaioannou, N., Lainas, T., Psalla, D., Amiridis, G.S., 2004. Experimentally induced orchitis associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes: clinical, ultrasonographic, seminological and pathological features. Theriogenology, 62, 1307–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kandeel, A., Gamal, M., Sediek, A., Salauddin, H., Fadlelmoula, A., 2014. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis within sheep and goat flocks in Alkamil province in Saudi Arabia. Bothalia J 44, 131–140.Google Scholar
- Picard-Hagen, N., Berthelot, X., Champion, J.L., Eon, L., Lyazrhi, F., Marois, M., Peglion, M., Schuster, A., Trouche, C., Garin-Bastuji, B., 2015. Contagious epididymitis due to Brucella ovis: relationship between sexual function, serology and bacterial shedding in semen. BMC Veterinary Research, 11, 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pugh, D.G., 2002. Theriogenology of Sheep and Goats. Diseases of the Male. In: Sheep and Goat Medicine. Elsvier Health Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 137–145.Google Scholar
- Radisic, B., Capak, D., Maticic, D., Harapin, I., Kos, J., Babic, T., Nedelikovic, G., 2010. Surgical treatment of a unilateral scrotal hernia in a ram Surgical treatment of a unilateral scrotal hernia in a ram. The journal Veterinarski arhiv, 80, 145–154.Google Scholar
- Randall, J.B., 2002. Ram epididymitis. http://www.colorado-serum.com/vets/vol_2/print/vc_0201.pdf.
- Ribeiro, M.G., Risseti, R.M., Bolaños, C.A., Caffaro, K.A., de Morais, A.C., Lara, G.H., Zamprogna, T.O., Paes, A.C., Listoni, F.J., Franco, M.M., 2015. Trueperella pyogenes multispecies infections in domestic animals: a retrospective study of 144 cases (2002 to 2012). Veterinary Quarterly, 35, 82–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ridler, A.L., West, D.M., 2011. Control of Brucella ovis infection in sheep. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 27, 61–66.Google Scholar
- Roberts, S.J., 2012. Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. Literary Licensing, LLC, Montana, USA.Google Scholar
- Sargison, N.D., Macrae, A.I., Scott, P.R., Baird, P., 2003. Investigation and management of necrotising orchitis associated with a scrotal haematoma in a Texel ram. Veterinary Record, 153, 752–753.Google Scholar
- Tibary, A., Boukhliq, R., El-Allali, K., 2018. Ram and Buck Breeding Soundness Examination Ram and Buck Breeding Soundness Examination. Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires, 6, 241–255.Google Scholar
- Vallianou N.G., Melaki, K., Constantinou, F., Gennimat, V., Kokkinakis, E., 2018. Testicular abscesses due to Brucella melitensis. New Microbes New Infection, 26, 1–2.Google Scholar