Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 7, pp 1953–1961 | Cite as

Increased genetic diversity of BVDV strains circulating in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey: first detection of BVDV-3 in Turkey

  • Mehmet Özkan TimurkanEmail author
  • Hakan Aydın
Regular Articles


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen associated with loss of meat, milk, and reproductive performance in cattle across the world. There have been two types of BVDV identified worldwide: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. However, a new type of BVDV, named HoBi-like pestivirus (BVDV-3), has been identified recently. BVDV presence in Turkey has been reported since the 1990s, but a mandatory vaccination program has not been implemented in Turkey so far. In serological studies conducted in Turkey for BVDV, reported seropositivity has been 50% on average. The aim of this study is to determine the genetic diversity of BVDV in blood and abortion materials from bovine in eastern Turkey. The presence of the virus was determined by antigen ELISA test. As a result of the phylogenetic analysis of 5′UTR, Npro and E2 genomic regions of the BVDV (n = 28), BVDV-1 (n = 25) was identified as the dominant type. In addition, BVDV-2 (n = 2) and BVDV-3 (n = 1) were determined which is the first report of HoBi-like pestivirus in Turkey. Although BVDV-1l (n = 19) was detected as the predominant sub-type of BVDV-1, 1a (n = 2), 1b (n = 1), 1c (n = 1), and 1d (n = 2) were also identified. In 2 samples, the BVDV-2 type detected was the 2a sub-type. In this study, it is emphasized that BVDV can be present in the abort materials as an agent and that it should be examined in the herd screening. In addition, it is understood that molecular epidemiological studies should continue for determining the genetic diversity of the viruses and that such studies should be carried out on the country basis. Necessary diagnostic programs should be developed for animals, which are imported or buying from other barns, and protection and control measures should be taken. The increase of reports on BVDV heterogeneity in Turkey and worldwide gets up related to the occurrence and spread of new BVDV types or variants, with potential implications for animal health and disease control.


Bovine viral diarrhea virus HoBi-like pestivirus Cattle Turkey 


Compliance with ethical standards

Statement of animal rights

All applications during the study were performed according to animal rights, and the manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Virology DepartmentAtatürk UniversityErzurumTurkey

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