Genetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in pre-weaned native Korean calves
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Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a prominent viral pathogen worldwide, causes substantial economic losses in the cattle industry. BVDV comprises two recognized species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, and at least 21 subtypes (1a–1u) for BVDV-1 and four subtypes (2a–2d) for BVDV-2 based on its 5′-untranslated region. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and genetic analysis of BVDV in calf feces in the Republic of Korea (ROK). We collected fecal samples from 635 pre-weaned native Korean calves aged 1–60 days, regardless of diarrhea, and subjected them to RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-five (5.5%) of the 635 samples were positive for BVDV infection. BVDV was detected in 20, 10, and 5 calves aged 1–20 days, 21–40 days, and 41–60 days, respectively. BVDV was the most frequent in 17 normal feces, followed by 16 diarrheic feces, and 2 hemorrhagic feces. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 25 samples belonged to BVDV-1b; 1 sample, BVDV-1c; and 9 samples, BVDV-2a. Moreover, the BVDV-1b and BVDV-2a isolates showed genetic variations. BVDV-1b was detected in diarrheic, hemorrhagic, and normal fecal samples. Thus, BVDV-1b is the most prevalent in calves and causes enteric disease with differing severity. BVDV-1c was newly identified in diarrheic calves. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the pathogenesis of BVDV-1c infection and its clinical manifestations. Our results indicate that effective vaccines and control programs against BVDV are required in the ROK.
KeywordsBovine viral diarrhea virus Pre-weaned native Korean calf Feces BVDV-1b BVDV-1c
The authors would like to thank Mr. Jeong-Byoung Chae and Du-Gyeong Han for helping with the collection of fecal samples.
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2018R1D1A1B07048271).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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