Advertisement

Reporting temporal fluctuations of hepatic C16 and C18 fatty acids during late gestation and early lactation in dromedary camel

  • Amir AhmadpourEmail author
  • Rachael G. Christensen
  • Mousa Zarrin
  • Farhad Farjood
  • Ahmadali Ahmadpour
Regular Articles
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

Based on current knowledge, C16 and C18 fatty acids (FA) are considered the most functional FA in hepatic metabolism. Although these FAs have been satisfyingly investigated in cattle, other species such as camel have been neglected. For this reason, the current study was designed to scrutinize changing patterns of C16 and C18 FAs in 10 dromedary camels from the last 2 months of gestation to the first months of lactation. Camels were grazed on natural pasture and supplemented with a balanced ration. Liver biopsies were obtained through blind biopsy technique at about 60, 45, 30, and 15-day antepartum (AP), and at 3, 15, 30, 45, and 60 post-partum (PP). Data were analyzed by the ANOVA procedure of SPSS with repeated measurements. From 15-day AP, saturated FA content of the liver declined (P < 0.01) and 15-day PP reached its peak (P = 0.02). At 30-day PP it went down (P < 0.01), and re-elevated at 45-day PP (P < 0.01) but remained at a steady state for the duration of the study. Mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated FA content of hepatic tissue were constant throughout AP, albeit observed to peak at 15-day AP compared with 45 (P = 0.04) and 30-day AP (P < 0.01) for mono-unsaturated FAs, and with 60-, 45-, and 30-day AP (P ≤ 0.01) for polyunsaturated FAs. The palmitic acid content of the liver reached a nadir at 30-day AP (P < 0.01), increased sharply (P < 0.01) at the next sampling time-point, and had a trend to escalate until 3-day PP. Palmitoleic acid levels were unchanged from 60- to 30-day AP, decreased at 15 AP and 3-day PP, increased at 15-day PP, then remained constant until the end of the study period (P ≤ 0.04). Stearic acid content started to grow at 15-day AP and reached its peak at 15-day PP (P < 0.01). At 30-day PP, stearic level in liver dropped abruptly (P < 0.01), then intensified at 45-day PP and did not change after; hepatic content of stearic acid was lower during AP compared with PP time-points. Other C18 FAs changed significantly during the study period. These results suggest that parturition could have a profound effect on FA composition and other metabolites in camel liver. Further research is required to establish the metabolic mechanism behind these changes.

Keywords

Camel Palmitic Stearic Liver Temporal fluctuations Transition period 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the expert technical assistance of SabzBavaran-e-NouAndish Co. for providing laboratory assistance and equipment. They also appreciate the clan of Jaàfârbiglou from Qashqaei Tribal Confederation for providing the animals and housing facilities.

Funding

This study was fully funded by the R&D grant from SabzBavaran-e-NouAndish Rural Co-op Company for research on physiological and nutritional improvement of the local dromedary camel herds (Shiraz, Fars, I.R. Iran; grant no. 229-707333-1/4).

Compliance with ethical standards

All procedures performed in the study involving camels were following the ethical standards of SabzBavaran-e-NouAndish Co. Policies on Experimental and Research Animal Rights (policy no. 73-336/1239-5).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11250_2019_1860_MOESM1_ESM.docx (915 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 915 kb)

References

  1. Ahmadpour, A., Aliarabi, H., Khan, M.G., Patton, R.A. and Bruckmaier, R.M., 2017. Temporal changes in milk fatty acid distribution due to feeding different levels of rolled safflower seeds to lactating Holstein cows, Journal of Dairy Science, 100, 4484–4499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akbar, H., Grala, T.M., Vailati Riboni, M., Cardoso, F.C., Verkerk, G., McGowan, J., Macdonald, K., Webster, J., Schutz, K., Meier, S., Matthews, L., Roche, J.R. and Loor, J.J., 2015. Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows, Journal of Dairy Science, 98, 1019–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Sobayil, F.A., 2009. Locations and techniques for percutaneous renal biopsy in adult dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 12, 298–302Google Scholar
  4. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1990. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, AOAC, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  5. Bionaz, M., Thering, B.J. and Loor, J.J., 2012. Fine metabolic regulation in ruminants via nutrient-gene interactions: saturated long-chain fatty acids increase expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and immune response partly through PPAR-α activation, British Journal of Nutrition, 107, 179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cebra, C.K., 2009. Disorders of carbohydrate or lipid metabolism in camelids Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice, 25, 339–352Google Scholar
  7. Chouinard, P.Y., Corneau, L., Barbano, D.M., Metzger, L.E. and Bauman, D.E., 1999. Conjugated linoleic acids alter milk fatty acid composition and inhibit milk fat secretion in dairy cows, The Journal of Nutrition, 129, 1579–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Contreras, G.A. and Sordillo, L.M., 2011. Lipid mobilization and inflammatory responses during the transition period of dairy cows, Comparative Immunology, Microbiology, and Infectious Diseases, 34, 281–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Douglas, G.N., Rehage, J., Beaulieu, A.D., Bahaa, A.O. and Drackley, J.K., 2007. Prepartum nutrition alters fatty acid composition in plasma, adipose tissue, and liver lipids of periparturient dairy cows, Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 2941–2959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Emery, R.S., Liesman, J.S. and Herdt, T.H., 1992. Metabolism of long chain fatty acids by the ruminant liver, The Journal of Nutrition, 122, 832–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farid, M.F.A., 1995. Nutrient requirements of dromedary camels: protein and energy requirements for maintenance, Journal of Arid Environments, 30, 207–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Faye, B., Bengoumi, M., Cleradin, A., Tabarani, A. and Chilliard, Y., 2001. Body condition score in dromedary camel: a tool for management of reproduction, Emirate Journal of Agricultural Science, 13, 1–6Google Scholar
  13. Folch, J., Lees, M. and Sloane Stanley, G.H., 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226, 497–509Google Scholar
  14. Gross, J.J., Kessler, E.C., Albrecht, C. and Bruckmaier, R.M., 2015. The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage, Plos One, 10, 1–17Google Scholar
  15. Hara, A. and Radin, N.S., 1978. Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent, Analytical Biochemistry, 90, 420–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ingvartsen, K.L., and Moyes, K., 2013. Nutrition, immune function, and health of dairy cattle, Animal, 7, 112–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Khadge, S., Thiele, G.M., Sharp, J.G., McGuire, T.R., Klassen, L.W., Black, P.N., DiRusso, C.C., Cook, L. and Talmadge, J.E., 2018. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease mammary tumor growth, multiorgan metastasis and enhance survival, Clinical & Experimental Metastasis, 38, 797–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khan, R., Shahzad, M.I. and Iqbal, M.N., 2016. Role of a camel in the pastoral mode of life and future use of rCGH as a therapeutic agent in milk and meat production, PSM Veterinary Research, 1, 32–39Google Scholar
  19. Litherland, N.B., Dann, H.M. and Drackley, J.K., 2011. Prepartum nutrient intake alters palmitate metabolism by liver slices from peripartal dairy cows1, Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 1928–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu, S., Hatano, B., Zhao, M., Yen, C.-C., Kang, K., Reilly, S.M., Gangl, M.R., Gorgun, C., Balschi, J.A., Ntambi, J.M. and Lee, C.-H., 2011. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ/β in hepatic metabolic regulation, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286, 1237–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Loften, J.R., Linn, J.G., Drackley, J.K., Jenkins, T.C., Soderholm, C.G. and Kertz, A.F., 2014. Invited review: palmitic and stearic acid metabolism in lactating dairy cows, Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 4661–4674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mashek, D.G. and Grummer, R.R., 2003. Effects of long chain fatty acids on lipid and glucose metabolism in monolayer cultures of bovine hepatocytes, Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 2390–2396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mei, S., Ni, H.-M., Manley, S., Bockus, A., Kassel, K.M., Luyendyk, J.P., Copple, B.L. and Ding, W.-X., 2011. Differential roles of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids on autophagy and apoptosis in hepatocytes, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 339, 487–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mirzaei-Alamouti, H., Mohammadi, Z., Shahir, M.H., Vazirigohar, M. and Mansouryar, M., 2018. Effects of short-term feeding of different sources of fatty acids in pre-mating diets on reproductive performance and blood metabolites of fat-tailed Iranian Afshari ewes, Theriogenology, 113, 85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nakamura, M.T., Yudell, B.E. and Loor, J.J., 2014. Regulation of energy metabolism by long-chain fatty acids, Progress in Lipid Research, 53, 124–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nasser, B., Kebbaj, M.S.E., Moustaid, K., Bagri, A., Essamadi, A. and Latruffe, N., 2015. Lipid analysis of tissues from camel (Camelus dromedaries) reveals unique composition in fatty acids, International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 6, 270–276Google Scholar
  27. Rukkwamsuk, T., Geelen, M.J.H., Kruip, T.A.M., and Wensing, T., 2000. Interrelation of fatty acid composition in adipose tissue, serum, and liver of dairy cows during the development of fatty liver postpartum, Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rukkwamsuk, T., Kruip, T.A.M., Meijer, G.A.L., and Wensing, T., 1999. Hepatic fatty acid composition in Periparturient dairy cows with fatty liver induced by intake of a high energy diet in the dry period, Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 280–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sato, H. and Inoue, A., 2006. The decrease in stearic acid proportions in adipose tissues and liver lipids in the fatty liver of dairy cows, Animal Science Journal, 77, 347–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shibani, M., Ringseis, R., Alkazali, M., Kerfakh, O. and Eder, K., 2011. Concentrations of conjugated linoleic acids in milk and tissues from single-humped Arabian camel (Camelus dromedaries) kept under intensive standardized management, African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6, 3470–3474Google Scholar
  31. Singh, R., Kaushik, S., Wang, Y., Xiang, Y., Novak, I., Komatsu, M., Tanaka, K., Cuervo, A.M. and Czaja, M.J., 2009. Autophagy regulates lipid metabolism, Nature, 458, 1131–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smith, S.B., Hively, T.S., Cortese, G.M., Han, J.J., Chung, K.Y., Casteñada, P., Gilbert, C.D., Adams, V.L. and Mersmann, H.J., 2002. Conjugated linoleic acid depresses the δ9 desaturase index and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase enzyme activity in porcine subcutaneous adipose tissue, Journal of Animal Science, 80, 2110–2115Google Scholar
  33. Smith, S.B., Lunt, D.K., Chung, K.Y., Choi, C.B., Tume, R.K. and Zembayashi, M., 2006. Adiposity, fatty acid composition, and delta-9 desaturase activity during growth in beef cattle, Animal Science Journal, 77, 478–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition, Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583–3597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E., Loor, J.J. and Garnsworthy, P.C., 2018. Effect of different exogenous fatty acids on the cytosolic triacylglycerol content in bovine mammary cells, Animal Nutrition,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2018.09.002
  36. Yonezawa, T., Yonekura, S., Kobayashi, Y., Hagino, A., Katoh, K. and Obara, Y., 2004. Effects of long-chain fatty acids on cytosolic triacylglycerol accumulation and lipid droplet formation in primary cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells, Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 2527–2534CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary SciencesUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  2. 2.USDA-ARS, Northern Great Plains Agricultural Research LaboratoryMandanUSA
  3. 3.Department of Animal SciencesYasouj UniversityYasoujIran
  4. 4.Department of Biological EngineeringUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  5. 5.Fars-IRIBShirazIran

Personalised recommendations