Epidemiology of Leptospira infection in livestock species in Saint Kitts

  • Kanae Shiokawa
  • Shamara Welcome
  • Michalina Kenig
  • Brenda Lim
  • Sreekumari RajeevEmail author
Regular Article


This pilot study describes the prevalence of Leptospira infection and exposure in livestock species, cattle, pig, sheep, and goats in Saint Kitts in the Caribbean region. Serum and kidney samples were collected from cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats at a local abattoir between September 2016 and March 2017. Cattle had the highest seroprevalence (79.8%) followed by pigs (64.8%), sheep (39.4%), and goats (24.8%). Highest seroprevalence was observed to serovars, Mankarso in cattle, Bratislava in pigs, Hardjo in sheep, and goats. Leptospira DNA was amplified from kidney samples of 18/99 cattle (18.2%), 11/106 pigs (10.4%), 4/106 sheep (3.8%), and 2/105 goats (1.9%). Our findings warrant further studies to assess leptospirosis associated economic burden to subsistence farmers and public health impact.


Leptospira Cattle Sheep goat Pigs Caribbean 



We thank the Saint Kitts Department of Agriculture and Abattoir staff for permission and help in sample acquisition.

Funding information

The project was supported by intramural funding from Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, One Health Center for Zoonosis and Tropical Veterinary Medicine.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ross University School of Veterinary MedicineBasseterreSaint Kitts and Nevis
  2. 2.College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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