Study on the nutritional value and ruminal degradation characteristics of fermented waste vinegar residue by N. sitophila

  • Ci Liu
  • Lin Zhang
  • Jiye Yang
  • Wenjia Zhang
  • Qianqian Wang
  • Jianxin Zhang
  • Jiaying Xin
  • Shuming ChenEmail author
Regular Articles


Chemical composition and rumen degradability of waste vinegar residue (WVR) as roughage feed used for mutton sheep were evaluated in this work. Compared with the unfermented WVR, the WVR fermented by N. sitophila had more (P < 0.01) ash, crude protein (CP), and true protein (TP), less (P < 0.01) ether extract (EE), and significantly more carotenoid by about 27 times. But the contents of dry matter (DM), crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) had no obvious differences (P > 0.05) between unfermented and fermented WVR. The results suggested that the nutritional value of fermented WVR was higher for mutton sheep as roughage feed than that of unfermented WVR. The effective degradability (ED) of DM was higher (P < 0.05) in sheep with fermented WVR-based diet. The ED of CP and NDF of fermented WVR was reduced (P < 0.01) compared with the unfermented WVR. The results further suggested that the fermentation improved the degradability of WVR, and the rumen degradability of protein by ruminal flora decreased in fermented WVR, saving more protein for the sheep post-ruminal digestion and absorption. Furthermore, the results presented here clearly indicated the potential of fermented WVR by N. sitophila as an unconventional and functional feedstuff with rich carotenoid for ruminants, which could reduce WVR discharge in vinegar brewing industry and improve ruminant production. This work laid a foundation for the development of ruminant carotenoid functional feed.


Waste vinegar residue N. sitophila Nutritional value Rumen degradability Carotenoid 



Waste vinegar residue


Crude protein


True protein


Ether extract


Dry matter


Crude fiber


Neutral detergent fiber


Acid detergent fiber


Effective degradability



The authors thank the members of the Fermentation Engineering Laboratory at the College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University for their help.

Funding information

This study was supported by the Key Research and Development Program of Shanxi Province (Nos. 201603D221027-3), Shanxi Province Science and Technology Innovation Program for Excellent Talents (Nos. 201705D211029), Science and Technology Development Program of Jinzhong (Nos. N1612), and China Agriculture Research System (Nos. CARS-38).

Compliance with ethical standards

Statement of animal rights

Procedures involving sheep manipulations were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Shanxi Agricultural University under the approved protocol.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ci Liu
    • 1
  • Lin Zhang
    • 1
  • Jiye Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wenjia Zhang
    • 3
  • Qianqian Wang
    • 1
  • Jianxin Zhang
    • 1
  • Jiaying Xin
    • 4
  • Shuming Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Animal Science and Veterinary MedicineShanxi Agricultural UniversityTaiguPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Shanxi Animal Genetic and Breeding CenterTaiyuanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Animal Husbandry Bureau of Youyu CountyYouyuPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Key Laboratory for Food Science & EngineeringHarbin University of CommerceHarbinPeople’s Republic of China

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