Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 5, pp 1239–1246 | Cite as

Impact of parity and housing conditions on concentration of immunoglobulin G in sow colostrum

  • M. NuntapaitoonEmail author
  • J. Suwimonteerabutr
  • N. Am-in
  • P. Tienthai
  • P. Chuesiri
  • R. Kedkovid
  • P. Tummaruk
Regular Articles


Colostrum is crucial for the survival and growth of suckling piglets. However, both the quantity and quality of colostrum are highly variable among sows. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of sow parity number and housing conditions on concentration of immunoglobulin G in sow colostrum. A total of 358 colostrum samples were collected from two commercial swine herds in Thailand. The colostrum samples were collected from all teats at 1 and 6 h after the onset of farrowing and kept at − 20 °C until analysis. The concentration of IgG was determined using ELISA. The concentration of IgG in colostrum at 1 h after the onset of farrowing was greater than the concentration of IgG at 6 h after the onset of farrowing (P < 0.001). Moreover, herd A had a greater colostral IgG concentration than herd B (P < 0.001). The concentration of IgG in primiparous sows (64.0 mg/ml) was lower than that in sow parity numbers 3 (75.1 mg/ml, P = 0.05) and 6 (79.2 mg/ml, P = 0.04). In conclusion, the variation in colostral immunoglobulin concentration in the sow colostrum was influenced by their parity number and housing conditions. The concentration of IgG declined significantly within 6 h after the onset of farrowing (P < 0.001).


Colostrum Farrowing Immunoglobulin Piglet Sow 


Funding information

Financial support for the present study was provided by a grant for International Research Integration: Chula Research Scholar, Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund (CU_GRS_61_04_31_01). M. Nuntapaitoon was funded by a Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Ratchadaphisek Somphot Fund.

Compliance with ethical standards

The experiment followed the guidelines documented in the Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes edited by the National Research Council of Thailand and was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee in accordance with the university regulations and policies governing the care and use of experimental animals (approval number 1731064).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Amdi, C., Krogh, U., Flummer, C., Oksbjerg, N., Hansen, C.F., and Theil, P.K., 2013. Intrauterine growth restricted piglets defined by their head shape ingest insufficient amounts of colostrum. Journal of Animal Science, 91, 5605–5613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balzani, A., Cordell, H.J., Sutcliffe, E. and Edwards, S.A., 2016. Heritability of udder morphology and colostrum quality traits in swine. Journal of Animal Science, 94, 3636–3644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bourne, F.J., Newby, T.J., and Chidlow, J.W., 1975. The influence of route of vaccination on the systemic and local immune response in the pig. Research in Veterinary Science, 18, 244–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bovey, K.E., Widowski, T.M., Dewey, C.E., Devillers, N., Farmer, C., Lessard, M., and Torrey, S., 2014. The effect of birth weight and age at tail docking and ear notching on the behavioral and physiological responses of piglets. Journal of Animal Science, 92, 1718–1727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Couret, D., Jamin, A., Kuntz-Simon, G., Prunier, A., and Merlot, E., 2009. Maternal stress during late gestation has moderate but long-lasting effects on the immune system of the piglets. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 131,17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Decaluwé, R., Maes, D., Declerck, I., Cools, A., Wuyts, B., De Smet, S., and Janssens, G.P.J., 2013. Changes in back fat thickness during late gestation predict colostrum yield in sows. Animal, 7, 1999–2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Decaluwé, R., Maes, D., Wuyts, B., Cools, A., Piepers, S., and Janssens, G.P.J., 2014. Piglets’colostrum intake associates with daily weight gain and survival until weaning. Livestock Science, 162, 185–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Declerck, I., Sarrazin, S., Dewulf, J., and Maes, D., 2017. Sow and piglet factors determining variation of colostrum intake between and within litters. Animal, 11(8), 1336–1343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Devillers, N., Farmer, C., Le Dividich, J., and Prunier, A., 2007. Variability of colostrum yield and colostrum intake in swine. Animal, 1, 1033–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferrari, C.V., Sbardella, P.E., Bernardi, M.L., Coutinho, M.L., Vaz Jr, I.S., Wentz, I., and Bortolozzo, F.P., 2014. Effect of birth weight and colostrum intake on mortality and performance of piglets after cross-fostering in sows of different parities. Preventive Veterinary Medecine, 114, 259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Foisnet, A.C., Farmer, C., David, C., and Quesnel, H., 2010. Relationship between colostrum production by primiparous sows and sow physiology around parturition. Journal of Animal Science, 88, 1672–1683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Herpin P., Le Dividich J., Berthon D., and Hulin J.C., 1994. Assessment of thermoregulatory and postprandial thermogenesis over the first 24 hours after birth in pigs. Experimental Physiology, 79,1011–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Herpin, P., LeDividich, J., Hulin, J.C., Fillaut, M., DeMarco, F., Bertin, R., 1996. Effect of the level of asphyxia during delivery on viability at birth and early postnatal vitality of newborn pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 74, 2067–2075.Google Scholar
  14. Hurley, W.L., 2015. Composition of sow colostrum and milk. In: The gestating and lactating sow. Farmer, C. (Ed.). Wageningen Academic Publishers. Wageningen, The Netherland. pp. 193–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kielland, C., Rootwelt, V., Reksen, O., and Framstad, T., 2015. The association between immunoglobulin G in sow colostrum and piglet plasma. Journal of Animal Science, 93, 4453–4462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kirkden, R.D., Broom, D.M., and Andersen, I.L., 2013. Piglet mortality: management solutions. Journal of Animal Science, 91, 3361–3389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Krogh, U., Bruun, T.S., Amdi, C., Flummer, C., Poulsen, J., and Theil, P.K., 2015. Colostrum production in sows fed different sources of fiber and fat during late gestation. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 95, 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Krogh, U., Storm, A.C., and Theil, P.K., 2016. Technical note: Measurement of mammary plasma flow in sows by downstream dilution of mammary vein infused para-aminohippuric acid. Journal of Animal Science, 94, 5122–5128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Le Dividich J., and Noblet J., 1984. Effect of colostrum intake on metabolic rate and plasma glucose in the neonatal pig in relation to environmental temperature. Biology of the Neonate, 46, 98–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lontoc, C.A.A., Punay, L.C.L., Cajano, P.J., and Vega, R.S.A., 2016. Comparative performance of sows housed with and without evaporative cooling system at temperature humidity index of 73-83. Philippine Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 42, 77–84.Google Scholar
  21. Markowska-Daniel, I., and Pomorska-Mol, M., 2010. Shifts in immunoglobulins levels in the porcine mammary secretions during whole lactation period. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, 54, 345–349.Google Scholar
  22. Moreira, L.P., Menegat, M.B., Barros, G.P., Bernardi, M.L., Wentz, I., and Bortolozzo, F.P., 2017. Effect of colostrum, and protein and energy supplementation on survival and performance of low-birth-weight piglets. Livestock Science, 202, 188–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. National Research Council (NRC), 2012. Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th revised edition. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. USA. 400 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Nuntapaitoon, M., and Tummaruk, P., 2018. Influences of climatic parameters on piglet preweaning mortality in Thailand. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 50, 857–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nuntapaitoon, M., Muns, R., Theil, P.K., and Tummaruk, P., 2018. L-arginine supplementation in sow diet during late gestation decrease stillborn piglet, increase piglet birth weight and increase immunoglobulin G concentration in colostrum. Theriogenology, 121, 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Quesnel, H., 2011. Colostrum production by sows: variability of colostrum yield and immunoglobulin G concentrations. Animal, 5, 1546–1553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sangild, P. T., 2003. Uptake of colostral immunoglobulins by the compromised newborn farm animal. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 44 (Suppl. 1), S105–S122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Souphannavong, C., and Sringarm, K., 2017. Comparison of quality and immunity between Thai native and crossbred pigs in colostrum and milk. Journal of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, 245–256.Google Scholar
  29. Stinn, J.P., and Xin, H., 2014. Performance of evaporative cooling pads on a swine farm in central Iowa. Animal Industry Report: AS 660, ASL R2932.Google Scholar
  30. Theil, P.K., Flummer, C., Hurley, W.L., Kristensen, N.B., Labouriau, R.L. and Sørensen, M.T., 2014. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum. Journal of Animal Sciences, 92, 5507–5519.Google Scholar
  31. Yun, J., Swan, K.M., Vienola, K., Kim, Y.Y., Oliviero, C., Peltoniemi, O.A.T., and Valros A., 2014. Farrowing environment has an impact on sow metabolic status and piglet colostrum intake in early lactation. Livestock Science, 163, 120–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhao, Y., Flowers, W.L., Saravia, A., Yeum, K.J., and Kim, S.W., 2013. Effects of social rank and gestation housing systems on oxidative stress status, reproductive performance, and immune status of sows. Journal of Animal Sciences, 91, 5848–5858.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Swine Reproduction Research UnitChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  4. 4.Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations