Full-genome characterization and genetic analysis of a H9N2 virus in commercial broilers in Iran, 2017

  • Mohammad Hossein Fallah Mehrabadi
  • Arash GhalyanchilangeroudiEmail author
  • Seyed Ali Ghafouri
  • Mohammad Malekan
  • Zahra Ziafati
  • Hossein Hosseini
  • Fatemeh Sadat Mousavi
  • Masoumeh Jabbarifakhr
  • Leila Aghaeean
Short Communications


Since 1998, Iran’s poultry industry has faced several outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2. Tissue samples were collected from a broiler flock with respiratory symptoms in autumn 2017. After that, virus isolation and confirmation of H9N2 using RT-PCR, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis for all eight genes were performed. The phylogenic analysis revealed HA gene of recent Iranian isolate (A/chicken/Mashhad/UT-Barin/2017) which was clustered in G1 sublineage. In addition, all eight genes of the virus were placed with Pakistani isolates of 2015 in separate group. Based on amino acid motif KSSR in HA cleavage site, the UT-Barin is considered as low pathogenic avian influenza with eight HA and seven NA potential N-glycosylated sites. No evidence was detected regarding adamantane and neuraminidase inhibitors’ drug’s resistance. Multiple point mutations were observed in all genes that were responsible for increasing virulence of the virus for avian host and also increasing affinity to mammalian host cells.


Avian influenza H9N2 Bioinformatic analysis Iran Virulence Mammalian cells 



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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Hossein Fallah Mehrabadi
    • 1
  • Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi
    • 2
    Email author
  • Seyed Ali Ghafouri
    • 3
  • Mohammad Malekan
    • 2
  • Zahra Ziafati
    • 2
  • Hossein Hosseini
    • 4
  • Fatemeh Sadat Mousavi
    • 2
  • Masoumeh Jabbarifakhr
    • 2
  • Leila Aghaeean
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Poultry Diseases, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural ResearchEducation and Extension Organization (AREEO)TehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  3. 3.Iranian Veterinary OrganizationTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineIslamic Azad UniversityAlborzIran

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