Effect of breed and other animal-related factors on conception rate to artificial insemination with frozen semen in mares in Ethiopia

  • Ararsa DugumaEmail author
  • Alemayehu Lemma
  • Azmeraw Hibste
Regular Articles


Equine reproduction is unique by having long behavioral estrus and differences in time of breeding between breeds and individuals of mares. An experimental study was conducted at the Balderas Sport Horses and Recreational Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from January to June, 2018, to evaluate conception rate to frozen semen in local and exotic crossbreed mares. Mares were teased to characterize estrus behavior and examined by ultrasound in determining imminent ovulation. Inseminations were done post ovulation within an average of 6–9 h using frozen-thawed semen. The overall conception rate to frozen semen was 15/21 (71.43%) with 8/11 (72.73%) in crossbreed and 7/10 (70%) in local breed mares. Age and body condition score (BCS) of animals had no significant effect on conception rate to AI with frozen semen. A slightly higher conception rate was obtained when ovulation was from the right ovary than when ovulated from the left ovary. A higher conception rate was obtained when the diameter of the preovulatory follicle was ≤ 45 mm than above diameter. The conception rate increased significantly with increased number of services/conception with an overall mean ± (SEM) of 2.2 ± 0.2 services/conception. A more number of services/conception were required for local breed (2.7 ± 0.2) than crossbreed mares (1.8 ± 0.3) and again for lower body condition scores than higher condition scores of mares. In conclusion, the increased number of services improved the conception rate with significant difference between breed of mares, whereas good management of mares for improved body conditions could be required to decrease the number of services per conception.


Breeds Conception rate Frozen semen Mares Number of services 



Balderas Sport Horses and Recreational Directorate of Palace Administration and Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, were well acknowledged for their financial and logistic support in the study of this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical considerations

Ethical clearance for this study was obtained from the animal research ethical review committee of Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, with reference number of approval letter VM/ERC/15/05/10/2018.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Veterinary MedicineHaramaya UniversityDire DawaEthiopia
  2. 2.College of Veterinary Medicine and AgricultureAddis Ababa UniversityBishoftuEthiopia
  3. 3.Horse Sport and Recreation Service Directorate, Palace AdministrationAddis AbabaEthiopia

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