Advertisement

Effect of breed and other animal-related factors on conception rate to artificial insemination with frozen semen in mares in Ethiopia

  • Ararsa DugumaEmail author
  • Alemayehu Lemma
  • Azmeraw Hibste
Regular Articles
  • 53 Downloads

Abstract

Equine reproduction is unique by having long behavioral estrus and differences in time of breeding between breeds and individuals of mares. An experimental study was conducted at the Balderas Sport Horses and Recreational Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from January to June, 2018, to evaluate conception rate to frozen semen in local and exotic crossbreed mares. Mares were teased to characterize estrus behavior and examined by ultrasound in determining imminent ovulation. Inseminations were done post ovulation within an average of 6–9 h using frozen-thawed semen. The overall conception rate to frozen semen was 15/21 (71.43%) with 8/11 (72.73%) in crossbreed and 7/10 (70%) in local breed mares. Age and body condition score (BCS) of animals had no significant effect on conception rate to AI with frozen semen. A slightly higher conception rate was obtained when ovulation was from the right ovary than when ovulated from the left ovary. A higher conception rate was obtained when the diameter of the preovulatory follicle was ≤ 45 mm than above diameter. The conception rate increased significantly with increased number of services/conception with an overall mean ± (SEM) of 2.2 ± 0.2 services/conception. A more number of services/conception were required for local breed (2.7 ± 0.2) than crossbreed mares (1.8 ± 0.3) and again for lower body condition scores than higher condition scores of mares. In conclusion, the increased number of services improved the conception rate with significant difference between breed of mares, whereas good management of mares for improved body conditions could be required to decrease the number of services per conception.

Keywords

Breeds Conception rate Frozen semen Mares Number of services 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Balderas Sport Horses and Recreational Directorate of Palace Administration and Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, were well acknowledged for their financial and logistic support in the study of this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical considerations

Ethical clearance for this study was obtained from the animal research ethical review committee of Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, with reference number of approval letter VM/ERC/15/05/10/2018.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ali, A., Alamaary, M., Al-Sobayil, F., 2014. Reproductive performance of Arab mares in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Veterinary Practice G:Grobtiere/Nutztiere,42, 145–149Google Scholar
  2. Arbel, R.W., Ingawale, M.V., Deshmukh, S.G., Hajare, S.W., 2015. Detection of preovulatory follicle size and early pregnancy by using ultrasonogrphy in thoroughbred mares foal heat. Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction,36, 42–45Google Scholar
  3. Camargo, C.E., Kozicki, L E., Ruda, P.C., Pedrosa, V.B., Talini, R., Weiss, R.R., Gomes, B-G.T., Ollhoff, R.D., 2017. Reproductive efficiency in lactating mares inseminated early in the puerperium (<10 days’ post-partum) vs non-lactating mares inseminated 180 days post partum. Pferdeheilkunde,33, 458–464Google Scholar
  4. Brinsko, S.P., Blanchard, T.L., Varner, D.D., Schumacher, J., Love, C.C., 2010. Manual of equine reproduction-e-book. ed. 3 Elsevier Health Sciences, Pp 11–72Google Scholar
  5. Cilek, S., 2009. Survey of reproductive success in Arabian horse breeding from 1976–2007 at Anadolu State Farm in Turkey. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances,2, 389–396Google Scholar
  6. Crowe, C.A.M., Ravenhill, P.J., Hepburn, R.J., Shepherd, C.H., 2008. A retrospective study of artificial insemination of 251 mares using chilled and fixed time frozen-thawed semen. Equine Veterinary Journal,40, 572–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davies Morel, M. C. G., Newcombe, J. R., Hayward, K., 2010. Factors affecting pre-ovulatory follicle diameter in the mare: the effect of mare age, season and presence of other ovulatory follicles (multiple ovulation). Theriogenology,74, 1241–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Freeman, D. W., 2014. Body Condition and Reproductive Performance of Broodmares cooperative extension system. Retrieved June 8, 2018 from http://articles.extension.org:80/pages/24986/body-condition-and-reproductive-performance-of-broodmares.
  9. Gibbs, P. G., Davison, K. E., 1992. A field study on reproductive efficiency of mares maintained predominately on native pasture. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science,12, 219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ginther, O. J., 1992. Characteristic of the ovulatory season. Reproductive biology of the mare: basic and applied aspects, ed. 2 cross plains, WI, Equiservices, Pp 173–232Google Scholar
  11. Ginther, O. J., 1993. Major and minor follicular waves during the equine estrous cycle. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science,13, 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ginther, O. J., Gastal, E. L., Gastal, M. O., Beg, M. A., 2008. Dynamics of the equine preovulatory follicle and periovulatory hormones: what’s new? Journal of Equine Veterinary Science,28, 454–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hemberg, E., Lundeheim, N., Einarsson, S., 2004. Reproductive performance of thoroughbred mares in Sweden. Reproduction in Domestic Animals,39, 81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Henneke, D. R., Potter, G. D., Kreider, J. L., Yeates, B. F., 1983. Relationship between condition score, physical measurements and body fat percentage in mares. Equine Veterinary Journal,15, 371–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jasko, D.J., Moran, D.M., Farlin, M.E., Squires, E.L., Amann, R.P., Pickett, B.W. 1992. Pregnancy rates utilizing fresh, cooled and frozen-thawed stallion semen. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioneers, Orlando, Florida, Pp649–60Google Scholar
  16. Kefena E., Dessie T., Han J. L., Kurtu M. Y., Rosenbom S., Beja-Pereira A. (2012): Morphological diversities and ecozones of Ethiopian horse populations. Animal Genetic Resources, 50, 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lemma, A., Bekana, M., Schwartz, H.J., Hildebrandt, T., 2006a. The effect of body condition on ovarian activity of free ranging tropical jennies (Equus asinus). Journal of Veterinary Medicine Siries,53,1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lemma, A., Birara, C., Hibste, A., Zewdu, G., 2015. Breeding soundness evaluation and reproductive management in Baldras sport horses. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal,19, 11–25Google Scholar
  19. Lemma, A., Schwartz, H. J., Bekana, M., 2006b. Application of ultrasonography in the study of the reproductive system of tropical jennies (shape Equus asinus). Tropical Animal Health and Production, 38, 267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lucy, M. C., 2007. The bovine dominant ovarian follicle. Journal of Animal Science,85, E89-E99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mata, F., Bourbon, J., Twigg-Flesner, A., Greening, L. 2013. Investigating follicle growth, uterine oedema and other factors affecting reproductive success in the lusitano mare. Revista Portuguesa de Zootecnia,2, 1–14Google Scholar
  22. McCue, P. M., 2012. Veterinary Student Manual. Equine Reproduction. Colorado State University,Pp235Google Scholar
  23. Meliani, S., Benallou, B., Abdelhadi, S. A, Halbouche, M., Naceri, A., 2011. Environmental factors affecting gestation duration and time of foaling of pure bred Arabian mares in Algeria. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances,6, 599–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mustafa, A., Tirpan, M. B., Tekin, K., Akcay, E., 2016. The influence of insemination time, age and semen dose on fertility of mares inseminated with frozen semen. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi,63, 359–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Najjar, A., Khaldi, S., Hamrouni, A., Ben Said, S., Benaoun, B., Ezzaouia, M., 2018. Variation factors of the pregnancy rate of arab pure breed mares inseminated by the deep intracornual method in post-ovulation. Advance in Animal and Veterinary Science,6, 40–43Google Scholar
  26. Pickett, B.W., Voss, J.L., Squires, E.L., Vanderwall, D.K., McCue, P.M., Bruemmer, J.E., 2000. Collection, preparation and insemination of stallion semen. In: Animal Reproduction Biotechnology Laboratory. Bulletin No. 10, Fort Collins, CO,Pp 94–5Google Scholar
  27. Pycock, J.F., 2002. Ultrasound characteristics of the uterus in the cycling mare and their correlation with steroid hormones and timing of ovulation. Retrieved May 20, 2018 from http://www.equinereproduction.com/articles/ultrasound-steroids.shtml.
  28. Rizagholizadeh, A., Gharazozlou, F., Akbarinejed, V., Youssefi, R., 2015. Left-Sided Ovulation Favors More Male Foals Than Right-Sided Ovulation in Thoroughbred Mares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 35, 31–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rossi, R., Silva Filho, J. M., Palhares, M. S., Martins, R. A., Anjos, F. R., Silva, M. M., 2014. Effect of age on fertility and embryonic loss of mares inseminated with jackass semen diluted and cooled at 5-0C for 12 hours. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia,66 1442–1448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rota, A., Furzi, C., Panzani, D., Camillo, F., 2004. Studies on motility and fertility of cooled stallion spermatozoa. Reproduction in Domestic Animals,39, 103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Samper, J. C., 1997. Ultrasonographic appearance and the pattern of uterine edema to time ovulation in mares. pp.189-191. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners.Google Scholar
  32. Samper, J. C., 2008. Induction of estrus and ovulation: why some mares respond and others do not. Theriogenology,70, 445–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Samper, J. C., Hellander, J. C., Crabo, B. G., 1991. Relationship between the fertility of fresh and frozen stallion semen and semen quality. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement,44, 107–114Google Scholar
  34. Sharma, S., Dhaliwal, G.S., Dadarwal, D., 2010. Reproductive efficiency of thoroughbred mares under indian subtropical conditions: a retrospective survey over 7 years. Animal reproduction science, 117, 241-248.Google Scholar
  35. Shirazi, A., Gharagozloo, F., Niasari-Naslaji, A., Bolourchi, M., 2002. Ovarian follicular dynamics in Caspian mares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science,22, 208–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sieme, H., Schafer, T., Stout, T. A. E., Klug, E., Waberski, D., 2003. The effects of different insemination regimes on fertility in mares. Theriogenology,60, 1153–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Squires, E.L., Pickett, B.W., Graham, J.K., Vanderwall, D.K., McCue, P.M., Bruemmer, J.E., 1999. Cooled and Frozen Stallion Semen. CSU Anim. Reprod. Biotechnol. Lab. Bull., No. 09, Fort Collins, CO.Google Scholar
  38. Stout, T. A. E., 2003. The timing of ovulation in mares: prediction and relevance to management of a breeding programme. 36th International Veterinary Congress.Google Scholar
  39. Vidament, M., Dupere, A. M., Julienne, P., Evain, A., Noue, P., Palmer, E., 1997. Equine frozen semen: freezability and fertility field results. Theriogenology,48, 907–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Woods, J. E. A. N., Bergfelt, D. R., Ginther, O. J., 1990. Effects of time of insemination relative to ovulation on pregnancy rate and embryonic loss rate in mares. Equine Veterinary Journal,22, 410–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yoon, M. J., 2012. The estrous cycle and induction of ovulation in mares. Journal of Animal Science and Technology,54, 165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Veterinary MedicineHaramaya UniversityDire DawaEthiopia
  2. 2.College of Veterinary Medicine and AgricultureAddis Ababa UniversityBishoftuEthiopia
  3. 3.Horse Sport and Recreation Service Directorate, Palace AdministrationAddis AbabaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations