Effect of total mixed ration silage containing agricultural by-products with the fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria on rumen fermentation and nitrogen balance in ewes
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The goal of this study was to determine the effects of the fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) on the quality of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing agricultural by-products, its digestibility, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen balance in ewes. TMR was prepared from rice straw, corn stover silage, brewer grain, tofu waste, steam-flaked corn, and a mineral mixture. The treatments consisted of silage additives added to TMR: CON (no silage additive), FJLB, COM (commercial additive), and MIX (FJLB + COM). Four cannulated ewes were assigned to the 4 × 4 Latin square design. The MIX treatment produced a lower (P < 0.01) pH than did the CON and FJLB treatments and a higher (P < 0.01) lactic acid concentration than did the other treatments. The fiber content in the COM treatment was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the other treatments. The FJLB treatment had similar fermentation quality and chemical composition to those of the CON and COM treatments in all parameters observed. Although the silage quality index (Fleig point) was higher in the MIX and COM treatments than in the CON treatment, all silages had good quality. No silage additives affected intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, or nitrogen balance. In conclusion, the TMR silage prepared from agricultural by-products mixed with wet-type food by-products with or without FJLB added resulted in well-preserved fermentation, and this product might be used as a ruminant feed.
KeywordsAgricultural by-product Feeding value Nitrogen balance Silage additive
The first author would like to thank the Directorate General of Resources for Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia, for granting doctoral scholarship through Beasiswa Pendidikan Pascasarjana Luar Negeri (BPLN 101.21/E4.4/2015).
Compliance with ethical standards
All animal experimental procedures were approved by the Committee for Animal Research and Welfare of Gifu University (#17035).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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