Effect of total mixed ration silage containing agricultural by-products with the fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria on rumen fermentation and nitrogen balance in ewes

  • Yuli YantiEmail author
  • Shogo Kawai
  • Masato Yayota
Regular Articles


The goal of this study was to determine the effects of the fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) on the quality of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing agricultural by-products, its digestibility, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen balance in ewes. TMR was prepared from rice straw, corn stover silage, brewer grain, tofu waste, steam-flaked corn, and a mineral mixture. The treatments consisted of silage additives added to TMR: CON (no silage additive), FJLB, COM (commercial additive), and MIX (FJLB + COM). Four cannulated ewes were assigned to the 4 × 4 Latin square design. The MIX treatment produced a lower (P < 0.01) pH than did the CON and FJLB treatments and a higher (P < 0.01) lactic acid concentration than did the other treatments. The fiber content in the COM treatment was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the other treatments. The FJLB treatment had similar fermentation quality and chemical composition to those of the CON and COM treatments in all parameters observed. Although the silage quality index (Fleig point) was higher in the MIX and COM treatments than in the CON treatment, all silages had good quality. No silage additives affected intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, or nitrogen balance. In conclusion, the TMR silage prepared from agricultural by-products mixed with wet-type food by-products with or without FJLB added resulted in well-preserved fermentation, and this product might be used as a ruminant feed.


Agricultural by-product Feeding value Nitrogen balance Silage additive 


Funding inforation

The first author would like to thank the Directorate General of Resources for Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia, for granting doctoral scholarship through Beasiswa Pendidikan Pascasarjana Luar Negeri (BPLN 101.21/E4.4/2015).

Compliance with ethical standards

All animal experimental procedures were approved by the Committee for Animal Research and Welfare of Gifu University (#17035).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abdel-Aziz, N.A., Salem, A.Z.M., El-Adawy M.M., Camacho L.M., Kholif A.E., Elghandour M.M.Y. and Borhami B.E., 2015. Biological treatments as a mean to improve feed utilization in agriculture animals-An overview. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 14, 534–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, AOAC, 2007. Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemist, 18th Edition. Association of official analytical chemists. Virginia, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Bureenok, S., Namihira, T., Kawamoto, Y. and Nakada, T., 2005. Additive effects of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria on the fermentative quality of guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) silage. Grassland Science, 51, 243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bureenok, S., Suksombat, W. and Kawamoto, Y., 2011. Effects of the fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) and molasses on digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics of ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) silages. Livestock Science, 138, 266–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bureenok, S., Yuangklang, C., Vasupen, K., Schonewille, J.T. and Kawamoto, Y., 2012. The effect of additives in napier grass silage on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 25, 1248–1254.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bureenok, S., Sisaath, K., Yuangklang, C., Vasupen, K. and Schonewille, J.T., 2016. Ensiling characteristics of silages of stylo legume (Stylosanthes guianensis), guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and their mixture, treated with fermented juice of lactic bacteria, and feed intake and digestibility in goats of rations based on these silages. Small Ruminant Research, 134, 84–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cao, L.M., Goto, M., Karita, S., Yamamoto, Y., Mizutani, M., Deguchi, Y., Urakawa, S., Maekawa, Y., Yamamoto, Y. and Masuko, T., 2002. Effect of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation quality of alfalfa (Madicago sativa L.) silage and its energy and nitrogen utilization by dry cows. Grassland Science, 48, 227–235.Google Scholar
  8. Cao, Y., Takahashi T., Horiguchi, K. and Yoshida, N., 2010. Effect of adding lactic acid bacteria and molasses on fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal digestion of total mixed ration silage prepared with whole crop rice. Grassland Science, 56, 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Da Silva, N.C., Dos Santos, J.P., Avila, C.L.S., Evangelista, A.R., Casagrande, D.R. and Bernardes, T.F., 2014. Evaluation of the effects of two Lactobacillus buchneri strains and sodium benzoate on the characteristics of corn silage in a hot-climate environment. Grassland Science, 60, 169–177.Google Scholar
  10. Denek, N. and Can, A., 2006. Feeding value of wet tomato pomace ensiled with wheat straw and wheat grain for Awassi sheep. Small Ruminant Research, 65, 260–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Denek, N., Can, A., Avci, M., Aksu, T. and Durmaz, H., 2011. The effect of molasses-based pre-fermented juice on the fermentation quality of first-cut lucerne silage. Grass and Forage Science, 66, 243–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Denek, N., Can, A., Avci, M. and Aksu, T., 2012. The effect of fresh and frozen pre-fermented juice on the fermentation quality of alfalfa silage. Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 18, 785–790.Google Scholar
  13. Horiguchi, K. and Takahashi, T., 2007. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of green soybean stover silage. Grassland Science, 53, 27–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huyen, N.T., Wanapat, M. and Navanukraw, C., 2012. Effect of mulberry leaf pellet (MUP) supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle fed on rice straw-based diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 175, 8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ishida, K., Yani, S., Kitagawa, M., Oishi, K., Hirooka, H. and Kumagai, H., 2012. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers. Animal Science Journal, 83, 735–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jin-ling, H., Li-ke, W. and Si-fa, D., 2013. Effects of previously fermented juice on nutritive value and fermentative quality of rice straw silage. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University, 20, 48–52.Google Scholar
  17. Khan, N.A., Hussain, S., Ahmad, N., Alam, S., Bezabhi, M., Hendriks, W.H., Yu P. and Cone J.W., 2015. Improving the feeding value of straws with Pleurotus ostreatus. Animal Production Science, 55, 241–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kung, L. Jr., 2010. Understanding the biology of silage preservation to maximize quality and protect the environment. Proceedings, California Alfalfa & Forage Symposium and Corn/Cereal Silage Conference, Visalia, CA.Google Scholar
  19. McDonald, P., Henderson, A.R. and Heron, S.J.E., 1991. The Biochemistry of Silage, Second Ed. Chalombe Publications, Marlow, Buckinghamshire, 1–340.Google Scholar
  20. Miyaji, M. and Matsuyama, H., 2016. Lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed ensiled total mixed ration containing steam-flaked or ground rice grain. Animal Science Journal, 87, 767–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. National Research Council of the National Academies (NRC), 2007. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants sheep, goats, cervids, and new world camelids. (The National Academic Press, Washington D.C. 1–362).Google Scholar
  22. R Core Team, 2016. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL
  23. Satter, L.D. and Slyter, L.L., 1974. Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro. British Journal of Nutrition, 32, 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Takahashi, T., Horiguchi, K. and Goto, M., 2005. Effect of crushing unhulled rice and the addition of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation quality of whole crop rice silage and its digestibility and rumen fermentation status in sheep. Animal Science Journal, 76, 353–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tanaka, O., Akiyama, F., Yamada, A., Ando, S., Uegaki, R., Kobayashi, R. and Kume, T., 2001. Effect of gamma radiation on microflora and fermentation quality of silages containing tofu cake and brewer’s grain. Grassland Science, 47, 274–282. (In Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  26. Tao, L., Zhou H., Zhang, N., Si, B., Tu, Y., Ma, T., and Diao, Q. 2017. Effects of different source additives and wilt conditions on the pH value, aerobic stability, and carbohydrate and protein fractions of alfalfa silage. Animal Science Journal, 88, 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Van Soest, P.J., Rovertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583–3597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wanapat, M., Kang, S., Khejornsart, P. and Pilajun, R., 2013. Improvement of whole crop rice silage nutritive value and rumen degradability by molasses and urea supplementation. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 45, 1777–1781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang, J., Wang, J.Q., Zhou, H. and Feng, T., 2009. Effects of addition of previously fermented juice prepared from alfalfa on fermentation quality and protein degradation of alfalfa silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 151, 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang, S., Yuan, X., Dong, Z., Li, J., Shao, T. 2017. Effect of ensiling corn stover with legume herbages in different proportions on fermentation characteristics, nutritive quality and digestibility on the Tibetan Plateau. Grassland Science 63(4):236–244Google Scholar
  31. Weatherburn, M.W., 1967. Phenol-Hypochlorite reaction for determination of ammonia. Analytical Chemistry, 39, 971–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yahaya, M.S., Goto, M., Yimiti, W., Smerjai, B. and Kawamoto, Y., 2004. Evaluation of fermentation quality of a tropical and temperate forage crops ensiled with additives of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB). Asia-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 17, 942–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yani, S., Ishida, K., Goda, S., Azumai, S., Murakami, T., Kitagawa, M., Okano, K., Oishi, K., Hirooka, H. and Kumagai, H., 2015. Effects of utilization of local food by-products as total mixed ration silage materials on fermentation quality and intake, digestibility, rumen condition and nitrogen availability in sheep. Animal Science Journal, 86, 174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yanti, Y. and Yayota, M., 2017. Agricultural by-products as feed for ruminants in tropical area: nutritive value and mitigating methane emission. Reviews in Agricultural Science, 5, 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang, X.Q., Jin, Y. M., Zhang, Y.J., Yu, Z. and Yan, W.H., 2013. Silage quality and preservation of Urtica cannabina ensiled alone and with additive treatment. Grass and Forage Science, 69, 405–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ziaei, N. and Molaei, S., 2010. Evaluation of nutrient digestibility of wet potato pomace ensiled with wheat straw compared to alfafa hay in Kermani sheep. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9, 771–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversitas Sebelas MaretSurakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.The United Graduate School of Agricultural ScienceGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of Applied Biological SciencesGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  4. 4.Education and Research Center for Food and Animal HealthGifu University (GeFAH)GifuJapan

Personalised recommendations