Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 853–858 | Cite as

Investigation of persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Holstein dairy cows

  • M. T. GaroussiEmail author
  • J. Mehrzad
  • A. Nejati
Regular Articles


The aim of this study was to investigate the persistent infection (PI) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) along with its coexistence between BVDV antibody titer and BVD virus in blood of Holstein dairy cows. Only large commercial farms (each contained < 1000–3000 unvaccinated cows) were included. There were 11 dairy cattle herds. They included nearly 20,000 dairy cows. Totally, 140 cows, > 3 months to almost 10 years old, were randomly sampled. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect BVDV antibody and virus, respectively. The percent positivity (PP) < 14 and ≥ 14 values are interpreted negative and positive, respectively. Simultaneously, whole blood samples pooled in groups of 10 animals were used for molecular detection of BVDV. The results revealed that 138 (98.56%) out of 140 cows were positive for BVDV antibody, while the BVDV antigen was detected only in 2 (1.42%) cows, which were negative for BVDV antibody and so were considered as persistent infection (PI) cows. They were also retested 3 weeks apart. Since the results showed the strong coexistence between seropositivity and BVD virus, in the infected dairy cattle herds, the combination of simple ELISA and pooled whole blood RT-PCR strategy could be an achievable approach to detect PI animals.


ELISA PCR BVDV Persistent infection 


Funding information

This research was financially supported by the vice chancellor of research, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Alenius, S., Jacobsen, S.-O., Cafaro, E., 1986. Frequency of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infections in Sweden among heifers selected for artificial insemination. In World Congress on Diseases in Cattle: Conference proceedings. 14, 204–207.Google Scholar
  2. Alenius, S., Lindberg, A., Larsson, B., 1997. A national approach to the control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Proceeding of the third ESVV symposium on the control of pestivirus infections. Lelystad, The Netherlands, 1996, 162–169.Google Scholar
  3. Barber, D.M.L., Nettleton, P. F., 1993. Investigation into Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in a dairy herd. Veterinary Record. 133: 549–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brownlie, J., Clarke, MC., Howard, CJ., 1989. Experimental infection of cattle in early pregnancy with a cytopathic strain of bovine virus diarrhoea virus. Research in Veterinary Science; 46: 307–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Constable, P. D., Hinchcliff, K. W., Done S. H., Grunberg, W., 2017. Veterinary medicine. Elsevier publication. China. 11th Edition. Volume 1. Pages. 578–597.Google Scholar
  6. Coria, M. F., McClurkin, A. W., 1978. Specific immune tolerance in an apparently healthy bull persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association. 172, 449–451.Google Scholar
  7. Denise Goens, S., 2002. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 43:946–954.Google Scholar
  8. Graham, D.A., Lynch, M., Coughlan, S., Doherty, M.L., O'Neill, R., Sammin, D., O’Flaherty, J. 2014. Development and review of the voluntary phase of a national BVD eradication programme in Ireland. Veterinary Record. 174, 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grooms, DL., 2004. Reproductive consequences of infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Veterinary Clinic of North America Food Animal Practice. 20(1):5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Harkness, JW., 1987. The control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection. Annales de Recherches Vétérinaires. 18: 167–174.Google Scholar
  11. Houe, H., 1992, Age distribution of animals persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus in twenty-two Danish dairy herds. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 56, 194–198.Google Scholar
  12. Houe, H., (1995). Epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Veterinary Clinic of North America Food Animal Practice. 11, 521–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Houe, H., 1999. Epidemiological features and economical importance of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections. Veterinary Microbiology. 64. 89–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Houe, H., Meyling, A., 1991. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in 19 Danish herds and estimation of incidence of infection in early pregnancy. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 11: 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kennedy, J.A., Mortimer, R.G., Powers, B., 2006. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on pooled samples to detect bovine viral diarrhea virus by using fresh ear-notch-sample supernatants. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 18, 89–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lindberg, A., Houe, H., 2005. Characteristics in the epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of relevance to control. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 72, 55–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McClurkin, AW., Coria, MF., Cutlip, RC., 1979. Reproductive performance of apparently healthy cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 174: 1116–1119.Google Scholar
  18. McClurkin, AW., Littledike, ET., Cutlip, RC., Frank, GH., Coria, MF., Bolin, SR., 1984. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. 48: 156–161.Google Scholar
  19. Moennig, V., Houe, H., Lindberg, A., 2005. BVD control in Europe: current status and perspectives. Animal Health Research Reviews. 6, 63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moerman, A., Straver, P.J., Dejong, M.C.M., Quak, J., Baanvinger, T., van Oirschot, J.T., 1993. A long term epidemiological study of Bovine Viral Diarrhea infections in a large herd of dairy cattle. Veterinary Record.132:622–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Munoz-Zanzi, C.A., Hietala, S.K., Thumond, M.C., Johnson, W.O., 2003.Quantification, risk factors, and health impact of natural congenital infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 64, 358–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Niskanen, R., Lindberg, A., 2003. Transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus by unhygienic vaccination procedures, ambient air, and from contaminated pens. Veterinary Journal. 165(2):125–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Niza-Ribeiro, J., Pereira, A., 2004. Epidemiological aspects of the infection and persistency of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in dairy farms. In Revista Portuguesa de Ciências Veterinárias. 549: 41–51.Google Scholar
  24. Obando, R. C., Hidalgo, M., Merza, M., Montoya, A., Klingeborn, B., and Moreno-Lopez, J., 1999. Seoprevalence to bovine diarrhoea virus and other viruses of the bovine respiratory complex in Venezuela (Apure state). Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 41, 271–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Presi, P., Heim, D., 2010. BVD eradication in Switzerland—a new approach. Veterinary Microbiology. 142, 137–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Presi, P., Struchen, R., Knight-Jones, T., Scholl, S., Heim, D., 2011. Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) eradication in Switzerland—experiences of the first two years. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 99, 112–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rogan, W.J., and Gladen, B., 1978. Estimating prevalence from the results of a screening test. American Journal of Epidemiology.107, 71–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sayers, RG., Byrne, N, O’Doherty, E., Arkins, S., 2015. Prevalence of exposure to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) in Irish dairy herds. Research in Veterinary Science; 100: 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stahl, K., Alenius, S. 2012. BVDV control and eradication in Europe—an update. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research. 60, S31–S39.Google Scholar
  30. Talebkhan Garoussi, M., 2007. The Effects of Cytopathic and Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus with Sperm Cells on In Vitro Fertilization of Bovine Oocytes. Veterinary Research Communication. 31, 365–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Talebkhan Garoussi, M., Mehrzad, J., 2011. Effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus biotypes on adherence of sperm to oocytes during in-vitro fertilization in cattle. Theriogenology. 75. 1067–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Talebkhan Garoussi, M., Bassami, MR., Afshari, SE., 2007. Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in bulk milk samples by the use of a nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay in Mashhad suburb of-Iran. Iranian journal of Biotechnology. 5. 1. 51–55.Google Scholar
  33. Talebkhan Garoussi, M., Haghparast, AR., Estajee, H. 2008. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus antibodies in bulk tank milk of industrial dairy cattle herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 84. 171–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Talebkhan Garoussi, M., Haghparast, AR., Hajenejad, MR., 2009. Seroprevalence and epidemiological aspects of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus infection in dairy cattle herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran. Tropical Animal health and production. 41:663–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Talebkhan Garoussi, M., Haghparast, AR., Rafati, MS., 2011. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus in persistently infected cows in industrial dairy herds of Mashhad suburb-Iran. International Journal of Veterinary Research. 5, 4: 198–203.Google Scholar
  36. Taylor, LF., Van Donkersgoed, J., Dubovi, EJ., Harland, RJ., van den Hurk, JV., Ribble, CS., Janzen, ED., 1995. The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a population of feedlot calves in western Canada. Canadian journal of veterinary research. 59(2):87–93.Google Scholar
  37. Thrusfield, M., 2005. Veterinary epidemiology. 3rd ed. Blackwell Science Publication. 233.Google Scholar
  38. VanLeeuwen, JA., Haddad, JP., Dohoo, IR., Keefe, GP., Tiwari, A., Tremblay, R., 2010. Associations between reproductive performance and seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral-diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in Canadian dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 94 54–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vilcek, S., Nettleton, PF., 2006. Pestiviruses in wild animals. Veterinary Microbiology. 116(1–3):1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang, G., Aldridge, S., Clarke, MC., Mccauley, J., 1996. Cell death induced by cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus is mediated by apoptosis. Journal of General Virology. 77: 1677–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Section of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  3. 3.Section of Theriogenology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations