Effects of replacing rice bran with tamarind seed meal in concentrate mixture diets on the changes in ruminal ecology and feed utilization of dairy steers
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Feed ingredients costs have been impacting the production cost. Attempts have been made to use local feed resources in order to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to identify effect of using crushed tamarind seed meal (TSM) in concentrate mixture on rumen fermentation, dry matter intake, and digestibility of dairy steers. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin Square Design. Four levels of TSM were used to replace rice bran (RB) in the concentrate mixtures in four treatments (T1 = 0% replacement of RB, T2 = 30% replacement of RB, T3 = 60% replacement of RB, T4 = 100% replacement of RB). The findings revealed that replacement of TSM for RB resulted in similar digestibility of nutrients and intakes (P > 0.05). However, rumen fermentation parameters were remarkably improved, namely total VFA and the concentration of C3 especially at the highest level of replacements (100%, T4), (P < 0.05). Rumen protozoal population was found lowered in all replacements, especially those in higher levels of TSM replacement. Consequently, the rumen methane productions were significantly reduced. TSM can be a promising energy source to replace rice bran, hence lowering the cost of concentrate mixture.
KeywordsTamarind seed meal Rumen fermentation Feed resource
The authors would like to express their most sincere gratitude to the Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University and the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the International Research Network (IRN) program (TRF-IRN57W0002) and TRF-IRG598001 and tamarind processing group of Koksa-ngud village for their financial support and research facilities. The Post Doc. Training Program provided by the Research and Graduate School, Khon Kean University, Thailand (Grant no.58440), is also acknowledged.
This study received financial support from the Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University and the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the International Research Network (IRN) program (TRF-IRN57W0002) and TRF-IRG598001 and tamarind processing group of Koksa-ngud village.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.
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